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Georgia Cervin

power imbalance between the FIG and IOC allowed the IOC to exert pressure and influence on the FIG about how it governed gymnastics. This pressure to abide by Olympic norms is seen in policies developed across several fields, including those related to gender, economics, and athlete welfare, all of

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Kirsti Van Dornick and Nancy L.I. Spencer

. . . she is in a position to try to get me classified . . .” (p. 178). This particular quote reveals an uncomfortable intimacy and the vulnerability that athletes are exposed to within a process where the imbalances of power are of great consequence to their athletic careers. Another study by Molik et

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Justen Hamilton

women combat sports athletes are among the most physically powerful women in society, thus offering them the ability to “reduc[e] [the] physical power imbalances on which patriarchy is founded and reified” ( Castelnuovo & Guthrie, 1998 , p. 13), whether such women undo gender in their intimate

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Joshua Twaites, Richard Everson, Joss Langford and Melvyn Hillsdon

). The formula for computation is: MCC = ( TN × TP ) − ( FP × FN ) ( TP + FP ) × ( TP + FN ) × ( TN + FP ) × ( TN + FN ) where TP, FP, TN and FN stand for the numbers of True Positives, False Positives, True Negatives and False Negatives, respectively. Due to the imbalanced nature of the data sets

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Kevin C. Miller, Brendon P. McDermott and Susan W. Yeargin

curve indicating a useful test for identifying exercise-associated muscle cramping-prone athletes ( p  < .01). Discussion Contrary to the dehydration/electrolyte imbalance theory ( Bergeron, 2008 ) and our hypothesis, cramp-prone athletes did not lose more sweat or electrolytes than noncrampers. Our

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Kari Stefansen, Gerd Marie Solstad, Åse Strandbu and Maria Hansen

’re 16 and an athlete and the coach [approaches you] then you’re naive and don’t really know what to do. Then it’s much easier for mistakes to happen. I think so. Yes. (Boy, int. 12) These quotes highlight the ambiguities surrounding legal CASRs that are thought to contain a power imbalance due to the

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Francini Vilela Novais, Eduardo J. Simoes, Chester Schmaltz and Luiz R. Ramos

 = unbiased estimate of η 2 . a Adjusted model included sex and nonlinear splines for both preintervention leisure-time physical activity and age effect. * P  < .05. Despite randomization of subjects into intervention groups, there were small imbalances at the study baseline for minutes of LTPA per week and

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Tanya R. Prewitt-White

administrators can protect the integrity of the organization and might also help prevent sexual exploitation ( Cense & Brackenridge, 2001 ; Wurtele, 2012 ). Additionally, in terms of education for athletic administrators, having an awareness that a power imbalance between men and women is regarded as a

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Marissa J. Basar, Justin M. Stanek, Daniel D. Dodd and Rebecca L. Begalle

from imbalances in muscular strength, deficits in neuromuscular control, or presence of asymmetries, it can ultimately compromise an individual’s physical performance. 1 , 3 – 6 When an individual possesses movement dysfunction, their quality of life and ability to physically perform potentially

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

calories too severely, particularly below 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass, which would be roughly equivalent to resting metabolic rate for most people ( Loucks et al., 2011 ). For example, in natural male body builders, prolonged low energy availability can result in loss of LBM, hormonal imbalances