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Guy C. Wilson, Yorgi Mavros, Lotti Tajouri and Maria Fiatarone Singh

Functional performance is the ability to meet demands of the environment and is a requirement for independence in everyday life ( Cohen & Marino, 2000 ; Jette, 2009 ). It is a critical component of the physical, social, and psychological well-being of individuals. Failure to adequately maintain

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Jordan Deneau, Sean Horton and Paula M. van Wyk

 al., 2015 ). Common masculine ideals including strength, independence, and self-reliance may impact men’s health-related behaviors including physical activity participation ( Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005 ; Courtenay, 2000 ; Schippers, 2007 ; Smith, Braunack-Mayer, Wittert, & Warin, 2007 ). However

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Deborah Hebling Spinoso, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Dain Patrick LaRoche, Camilla Zamfollini Hallal, Aline Harumi Karuka, Fernanda Cristina Milanezi and Mauro Gonçalves

limitation, death, and hospitalization, slowing down to reduce FD may be a poor strategy for older adults trying to maintain health and independence in ADL ( Cesari et al., 2005 ; Guralnik et al., 2000 ; Langlois et al., 1997 ). Alternatively, progressive resistance exercise may increase strength capacity

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John Stoszkowski and Dave Collins

justifiably state the need for a level of maturity and independence in the learner; characteristics that are also central to the application of andragogic approaches ( Knowles, 1975 ). Certainly, caution is generally advisable when new techniques or methods are suggested. Several authors have stressed the

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Brendan T. O’ Keeffe, Ciaran MacDonncha, Kwok Ng and Alan E. Donnelly

shown to be representative of the national sample (14.2% boys, 18.5% girls, and 67.3% mixed). There was an overrepresentation of private fee-paying schools (9.8% survey; 7.1% national). However, a chi-square test of independence indicated that this did not have a significant effect on any of the key

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Aubrey Newland, Maria Newton, E. Whitney G. Moore and W. Eric Legg

nested within teams) players have shared experiences, thus violating the assumption of independence of observations. This study addresses this gap through the use of multilevel modelling (MLM) which accounts for the nesting of players within teams. Present Study Two approaches to PYD outcomes in sport

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Alice M. Buchanan, Benjamin Miedema and Georgia C. Frey

accompanied by a sibling, parent, or some other support person. In those instances, the parents had to decide just how much independence they were willing to give their child as they considered whether to allow him or her to go alone. For instance, Jackie said that Mark likes to be physically active, and that

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Tyler L. Malone, Adam Kern, Emily Klueh and Daniel Eisenberg

and the text-based cognitive reframing treatment. We assessed differences in categorical outcomes of treatment memorability, use, and helpfulness using Pearson’s chi-square test for independence and Fisher’s exact test for small sample sizes ( Agresti, 2018 ). Furthermore, we assessed whether the

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Lorraine Cale and Jo Harris

understanding, and arguably to all good teaching, are the inclusion and empowerment of all pupils, and their subsequent shift with enhanced knowledge and understanding from dependence on the teacher to independence. In considering approaches to physical literacy development, Almond and Myers ( 2017 ) argue that

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April Henning and Jörg Krieger

Athletes’ Commission of the DOSB was seeking greater independence for athletes’ bodies and a repeal of Rule 40 of the Olympic Charter that prevented athletes from advertising during the period of the Olympic Games. Though initially unsuccessful in these pursuits after meeting with Bach in September 2018