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Sharon R. Guthrie and Shirley Castelnuovo

The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the ways women with physical disabilities shape their identities and manage (i.e., cope or come to terms with) their disabilities while living in an able-bodyist culture. Particular emphasis was placed on how these women, all of whom were participating in sport or exercise, used physical activity in the management process. In-depth interviews were conducted with 34 women who had physical mobility disabilities. Findings indicated three different approaches to managing disability via physical activity: (a) management by minimizing the significance of the body, (b) management by normalization of the body, and (c) management by optimizing mind-body functioning. They also indicated that having a disability does not preclude positive physical and global self-perceptions. The implications of these findings for sport and society are discussed.

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M. Monda, A. Goldberg, P. Smitham, M. Thornton and I. McCarthy

To study mobility in older populations it can be advantageous to use portable gait analysis systems, such as inertial measurement units (IMUs), which can be used in the community. To define a normal range, 136 active subjects were recruited with an age range of 18 to 97. Four IMUs were attached to the subjects, one on each thigh and shank. Subjects were asked to walk 10 m at their own self-selected speed. The ranges of motion of thigh, shank, and knee in both swing and stance phase were calculated, in addition to stride duration. Thigh, shank, and knee range of movement in swing and stance were significantly different only in the > 80 age group. Regressions of angle against age showed a cubic relationship. Stride duration showed a weak linear relationship with age, increasing by approximately 0.1% per year.

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Sheri A. Hale

Objective:

To review the etiology of patellar tendinopathy as it relates to clinical management of chronic patellar-tendon disease in athletes.

Data Sources:

Information was gathered from a MEDLINE search of literature in English using the key words patellar tendinitis, patellar tendonitis, patellar tendinosis, patellar tendinopathy, and jumper’s knee.

Study Selection:

All relevant peer-reviewed literature in English was reviewed.

Data Synthesis:

The etiology of patellar tendinopathy is multifactorial, incorporating both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Age, muscle flexibility, training program, and knee-joint dynamics have all been associated with patellar tendinopathy. The roles of gender, body morphology, and patellar mobility in patellar tendinopathy are unclear.

Conclusions:

The pathoetiology of patellar tendinopathy is a complex process that results from both an inflammatory response and degenerative changes. There is a tremendous need for research to improve our understanding of the pathoetiology of patellar tendinopathy and its clinical management.

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Susan Williams, Claudia Meyer, Frances Batchelor and Keith Hill

The objective of this study was to determine whether improved balance outcomes achieved in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) using balance screening to identify mild balance dysfunction and home exercises could be translated into community settings. Community-dwelling people aged over 65 who expressed concerns about their balance, had less than two falls in the preceding 12 months, and who had mild balance impairment on screening were given an individualized home-based balance and strengthening exercise program with intermittent home-visit support by a physiotherapist. Of 71 participants assessed (mean age 77.3 years, 76% female), 58 (82%) completed the six-month intervention. Twenty six percent of participants regained balance performance within normal limits—similar to those achieved in the previous RCT. Successful results from a previous RCT were able to be translated into community settings, with a similar magnitude of effect on balance and mobility.

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N.A. Gallaghe, P.J. Clarke, C. Loveland-Cherry, D.L. Ronis and K.A. Gretebeck

This cross-sectional study examined the association of self-efficacy with neighborhood walking in older adult (mean age = 76.1, SD = 8.34) fallers (n = 108) and nonfallers (n = 217) while controlling for demographic characteristics and mobility. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that the full model explained 39% of the variance in neighborhood walking in fallers (P < .001) and 24% in nonfallers (P < .001). Self-efficacy explained 23% of the variance in fallers (P < .001) and 11% in nonfallers (P < .001). Neighborhood walking was significantly associated with self-efficacy for individual barriers in both groups. Self-efficacy for neighborhood barriers trended toward significance in fallers (β = .18, P = .06). Fall history did not moderate the relationship between self-efficacy and neighborhood walking. Walking interventions for older adults should address self-efficacy in overcoming individual walking barriers. Those targeting fallers should consider addressing self-efficacy for overcoming neighborhood barriers.

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Marc J. Philippon, Jesse C. Christensen and Michael S. Wahoff

Objective:

To report the 4-phase rehabilitation progression of a professional athlete who underwent arthroscopic intra-articular repair of the hip after injury during the 2006–07 season.

Design:

Case study; level of evidence, 4.

Main Outcome Measures:

Objective values were obtained by standard goniometric measurements, handheld dynamometer, dynamic sports testing, and clinical testing for intra-articular pathology.

Results:

This case report illustrates improvements in hip mobility, muscle-force output, elimination of clinical signs of intra-articular involvement, and ability to perform high-level sport-specific training at 9 wk postsurgery. At 16 wk postsurgery, the patient was able to return to full preparation for sport for the following season.

Conclusion:

After the 4-phase rehabilitation program, the patient demonstrated improvement in all areas of high-level function after an arthroscopic intra-articular repair of the hip. The preoperative management to return to sport is outlined, with clinical outcomes and criteria for return to competition.

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Kerrie J. Kauer and Vikki Krane

Edited by Lavon Williams

This investigation, framed in feminist and social identity perspectives, examined female athletes’ interpretations and reactions to the stereotypes ascribed to women in sport. Interviews with 15 female collegiate athletes revealed that the primary stereotypes directed at them were that they were lesbian and masculine. These stereotypes seemed to emanate from the athletes’ lack of conformity to hegemonic femininity (Choi, 1998; Krane, 2001a). Initially, the athletes responded to being typecast with anger and they used social mobility strategies (e.g., distancing from an athletic identity, performing femininity) to avoid negative perceptions. Both heterosexual and lesbian/bisexual athletes coped with being stereotyped and grew more comfortable with their own sexual identities and those of their teammates. This led to the development of inclusive team environments, collective esteem, and empowerment, with athletes speaking out against homonegative comments in other settings.

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Gregory S. Kolt, Ruth P. Driver and Lynne C. Giles

Research on variables that encourage older adults to exercise is limited. This study was carried out to identify the participation motives of older Australians involved in regular exercise and sport. The 815 participants (399 men, 416 women) ranged in age from 55 to 93 years (M = 63.6, SD = 7.8) and were participating in their activities of choice at least once per week. All participants completed the Participation Motivation Questionnaire for Older Adults. The most common exercise/sport activities that participants were involved in were walking, golf, lawn bowls, tennis, and swimming. The most highly reported motives for participation were to keep healthy, liking the activity, to improve fitness, and to maintain joint mobility. Principal-components analysis of the questionnaire revealed 6 factors: social, fitness, recognition, challenge/benefits, medical, and involvement. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in reasons for participation in exercise and sport based on gender, age, education level, and occupation.

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Merrill J. Melnick

It is argued that the social forces of urbanization, individualism, interpersonal competition, technology, and geographical mobility have brought greater and greater numbers of strangers into people's everyday lives and have made the achievement of primary, social ties with relatives, friends, neighbors, and workmates more difficult. As a result, many are forced to satisfy their needs for sociability in less personal, less intimate, less private ways. It is proposed that sports spectating has emerged as a major urban structure where spectators come together not only to be entertained but to enrich their social psychological lives through the sociable, quasi-intimate relationships available. The changing nature of the sociability experience in America presents sport managers with interesting challenges and opportunities. A number of recommendations are offered for maximizing the gemeinschaft possibilities of sports spectating facilities. By giving greater attention to the individual and communal possibilities of their events, sport managers can increase spectator attendance while rendering an important public service.

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Philippe C. Dixon and David J. Pearsall

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cross-slope on gait dynamics. Ten young adult males walked barefoot along an inclinable walkway. Ground reaction forces (GRFs), lower-limb joint kinematics, global pelvis orientation, functional leg-length, and joint reaction moments (JRMs) were measured. Statistical analyses revealed differences across limbs (up-slope [US] and down-slope [DS]) and inclinations (level; 0°; and cross-sloped, 6°). Adaptations included increases of nearly 300% in mediolateral GRFs (p < .001), functional shortening the US-limb and elongation of the DS-limb (p < .001), reduced step width (p = .024), asymmetrical changes in sagittal kinematics and JRM, and numerous pronounced coronal plane differences including increased US-hip adduction (and adductor moment) and decreased DS-hip adduction (and adductor moment). Data suggests that modest cross-slopes can induce substantial asymmetrical changes in gait dynamics and may represent a physical obstacle to populations with restricted mobility.