The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between attitude toward physical activity and exercise practices among a large, well-defined population of rural mid western elderly. The frequency of participation in exercise was a composite across three questions regarding physical activity. Intensity of exercise was also considered. The data were analyzed according to a weighted least-squares approach to categorical data. The resulting chisquare goodness-of-fit model was significant and replicated the exercise behavior of the subjects. A significant main effect for gender and a significant age × attitude interaction was observed. The main effect for gender revealed that, for any age × attitude combination, males were more apt to participate at a given exercise level. However, age mediated the influence of attitude on exercise. Older age had a more detrimental effect on exercise behavior if attitude toward exercise was positive.
Kenneth E. Mobily, Jon H. Lemke, Greg A. Drube, Robert B. Wallace, David K. Leslie and Ellen Weissinger
Steve Miller and Robert Weinberg
The present investigation examined perceptions of psychological momentum, situation criticality, and skill level and then determined the relationships between these variables and performance outcome in volleyball using archival data. Division I and beginning volleyball students completed questionnaires to determine perceptions of momentum. Different scenarios were provided in which situation criticality and perceived momentum were manipulated. Subjects responded to each scenario by rating which team they perceived to have a psychological advantage. Actual game situations in which one team came back from 3 points down to tie were analyzed to determine the outcome of the next five serves, 5 points, and the game at critical and noncritical stages. Results indicated that subjects’ perceived momentum had a psychological influence on the game but that only low-skill subjects perceived it as having an influence on performance. Momentum had minimal influence on subsequent performance in actual game situations.
Melissa S. Price and Maureen R. Weiss
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship among coach burnout, coaching behaviors, and athletes’ psychological responses using Chelladurai’s (1980, 1990) multidimensional model of leadership as a theoretical framework. Two questions were addressed: (a) Do coaches who vary in level of burnout differ in the behaviors athletes perceive they exhibit? (b) Are coaching behaviors related to athletes’ enjoyment, perceived competence, anxiety, and burnout? A sample of 193 female soccer players and 15 head coaches of high school teams completed measures of the constructs of interest. Coaches higher in emotional exhaustion were perceived by their teams as providing less training and instruction and social support and making fewer autocratic and greater democratic decisions. For the second question, athletes’ perceptions of greater training and instruction, social support, positive feedback, democratic decisions, and less autocratic style were related to more positive (i.e., perceived competence, enjoyment) and less negative (i.e., anxiety, burnout) psychological outcomes.
Paul Estabrooks and Kerry S. Courneya
The purpose of the study was to determine if exercise self-schema predicts exercise participation and moderates the exercise intention-behavior relationship. Participants were undergraduate students categorized into exerciser schematics (n = 527), nonexerciser schematics (n = 52), and aschematics (n = 106). The first of two questionnaires, given 4 weeks apart, included intention items for moderate and strenuous exercise, and exercise at university facilities. The second questionnaire included self-reported exercise items. Attendance at the university fitness facilities was monitored during the 4-week period between questionnaires. Kruskal-Wallis tests determined exerciser schematics reported intending to and exercising more often than aschematics and nonexerciser schematics for all measures (p < .01). Fischer z transformations revealed partial support for the hypothesis that exerciser schematics would have a higher correlation between intention and exercise than aschematics or nonexerciser schematics. Discussion focused on overcoming schematic assessment problems, offered explanation of results, and proposed future exercise self-schema research.
Popi Sotiriadou, Jessie Brouwers, Veerle De Bosscher and Graham Cuskelly
Previous studies acknowledge the importance of sporting organizations’ developing partnerships with clubs for athlete development purposes. However, there are no studies that address the way partnerships influence athlete progression and pathways. This study explores interorganizational relationships (IORs) between a tennis federation and tennis clubs in their efforts to improve player development processes. Document analysis and semistructured interviews with representatives from clubs and the Flemish federation were used. The findings show that the federation and the clubs engaged in IORs to achieve reciprocity and efficiency. The federation anticipated gaining legitimacy and asymmetry, and clubs expected to develop stability. Formal and informal control mechanisms facilitated IOR management. The conceptual model discussed in this study shows the types of IOR motives, management, and control mechanisms that drive and influence the attraction, retention/ transition, and nurturing processes of athlete development.
Philip Wilson and Robert C. Eklund
The purpose of this investigation was to examine Leary’s (1992) contention that competitive anxiety revolves around the self-presentational implications of sport competition. Intercollegiate athletes (N = 199) completed inventories assessing competitive trait anxiety and self-presentational concerns. Principal-axis factor analysis with direct oblim rotation of self-presentational concern items produced an interpretable four-factor solution accounting for 62% of the variance. These factors were interpreted to represent self-presentational concerns about Performance/Composure Inadequacies, Appearing Fatigued/Lacking Energy, Physical Appearance, and Appearing Athletically Untalented. Correlational and structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-presentational concern was more strongly associated with cognitive rather than somatic anxiety, and that substantial portions of variance in competitive anxiety could be accounted for by self-presentational concern variables. The results of this investigation provide support for Leary’s (1992) assertion regarding the relationship between self-presentational concern and competitive anxiety.
John G.H. Dunn, Janice Causgrove Dunn and Daniel G. Syrotuik
This study examined the relationship between perfectionism and goal orientations among male Canadian Football players (M age = 18.24 years). Athletes (N = 174) completed inventories to assess perfectionist orientations and goal orientations in sport. Perfectionism was conceptualized as a multidimensional construct and was measured with a newly constructed sport-specific version of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS; Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990). Exploratory factor analysis of the modified MPS revealed four sport-related perfectionism dimensions: perceived parental pressure, personal standards, concern over mistakes, and perceived coach pressure. Canonical correlation analysis obtained two significant canonical functions (R C1 = .36; R C2 = .30). The first one revealed that task orientation was positively correlated with an adaptive profile of perfectionism. The second one revealed that ego orientation was positively associated with a maladaptive profile of perfectionism. Results are discussed in the context of Hamachek’s (1978) conceptualization of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism.
James R. Morrow Jr. and Patty S. Freedson
This review summarizes the research relating physical activity to aerobic fitness among adolescents. A brief description of commonly used physical activity and aerobic fitness measures is presented, followed by an interpretation of the literature that suggests a small to moderate relationship between physical activity and aerobic fitness in this population (typical correlation of .16-17). Dose-response data are lacking, which makes it difficult to offer definitive conclusions concerning the amount of physical activity necessary to elicit change in aerobic capacity. Nevertheless, recommendations about the type, amount, and quality of physical activity for adolescents are presented. Recommendations are based on a summary of the research data on daily physical activity and aerobic fitness in adolescents. Further research is needed to investigate the association between habitual physical activity and aerobic fitness in adolescents where the a priori goal is to identify a threshold of daily physical activity necessary for an aerobic benefit associated with enhanced health.
Simon Avrillon, Boris Jidovtseff, François Hug and Gaël Guilhem
Muscle strengthening is commonly based on the use of isoinertial loading, whereas variable resistances such as pneumatic loading may be implemented to optimize training stimulus. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of the ratio between pneumatic and isoinertial resistance on the force–velocity relationship during ballistic movements.
A total of 15 participants performed 2 concentric repetitions of ballistic bench-press movements with intention to throw the bar at 30%, 45%, 60%, 75%, and 90% of the maximal concentric repetition with 5 resistance ratios including 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, or 0% of pneumatic resistance, the additional load being isoinertial. Force-, velocity-, and power-time patterns were assessed and averaged over the concentric phase to determine the force–velocity and power–velocity relationships for each resistance ratio.
Each 25% increase in the pneumatic part in the resistance ratio elicited higher movement velocity (+0.11 ± 0.03 m/s from 0% to 80% of the concentric phase) associated with lower force levels (–43.6 ± 15.2 N). Increased isoinertial part in the resistance ratio resulted in higher velocity toward the end of the movement (+0.23 ± 0.01 m/s from 90% to 100%).
The findings show that the resistance ratio could be modulated to develop the acceleration phase and force toward the end of the concentric phase (pneumatic-oriented resistance). Inversely, isoinertial-oriented resistance should be used to develop maximal force and maximal power. Resistance modality could, therefore, be considered an innovative variable to modulate the training stimulus according to athletic purposes.
Roozbeh Naemi, Stelios G. Psycharakis, Carla McCabe, Chris Connaboy and Ross H. Sanders
Glide efficiency, the ability of a body to minimize deceleration over the glide, can change with variations in the body’s size and shape. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between glide efficiency and the size and shape characteristics of swimmers. Eight male and eight female swimmers performed a series of horizontal glides at a depth of 70 cm below the surface. Glide efficiency parameters were calculated for velocities ranging from 1.4 to 1.6 m/s for female swimmers (and at the Reynolds number of 3.5 million) and from 1.6 to 1.8 m/s for male swimmers (and at the Reynolds number of 4.5 million). Several morphological indices were calculated to account for the shape characteristics, with the use of a photogrammetric method. Relationships between the variables of interest were explored with correlations, while repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess within-group differences between different velocities for each gender group. Glide efficiency of swimmers increased when velocity decreased. Some morphological indices and postural angles showed a significant correlation with glide efficiency. The glide coefficient was significantly correlated to the chest to waist taper index for both gender groups. For the male group, the glide coefficient correlated significantly to the fineness ratio of upper body, the chest to hip cross-section. For the female group the glide coefficient had a significant correlation with the waist to hip taper index. The findings suggested that gliding efficiency was more dependent on shape characteristics and appropriate postural angles rather than being dependent on size characteristics.