The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of former college football players upon exiting intercollegiate careers. The qualitative methodology of in-depth, dialogic interviewing was employed. Participants were 7 former NCAA Division I-A collegiate football players who completed their eligibility within the last 3 years and who were at least 8 months removed from collegiate competition. These participants were not under contract with any professional teams at the time of their interviews. Findings centered around the following themes: (a) the transition from high school to elite-level college football, and the change in the relationships participants had with their coaches; (b) the learning of behavior not positively transferable to the “real world”; (c) the power and control issues surrounding the major college football setting, and the manner in which participants perceived, and responded to, being controlled; and (d) the ways participants were experiencing posteligibility life.
Gary D. Kinchin and Mary O’Sullivan
While there have been frequent calls for reform in secondary physical education, little research has focused on the implementation and assessment of curriculum from the perspective of students. Drawing upon the theoretical frame of student resistance, the purpose of this study was to describe how high school students demonstrated support for and resistance to implementation of a 20- day curricular initiative termed a Cultural Studies unit. This approach consists of an integrated practical and theoretical study of sport and physical activity. Data were collected through student focus group interviews, student journals, nonparticipant observations, and informal conversations. Students responded favorably to the principles of Sport Education and the opportunities to critique issues of social justice. Such content was considered appropriate for physical education. Resistance to some aspects of the unit was both overt and covert. Meticulous and careful planning of content and choice of pedagogy to facilitate delivery is crucial to positioning a Cultural Studies unit in a high school program.
Walter E. Davis, William A. Sparrow and Terry Ward
A fractionation technique was employed to determine the locus of reaction time delay in Down syndrome (DS) and other adult subjects with mental retardation (MH). Twenty-three subjects (8 nondisabled, 8 MH, and 7 DS) responded to a light, sound, and combination light/sound signal. Dependent measures of premotor time, motor time, total reaction time, and movement time were obtained during a 20° elbow extension movement and were analyzed separately. As expected, both MH and DS subjects were slower and more variable in their responses than the subjects without disabilities. In turn, DS subjects were significantly slower but not more variable than the MH subjects. There were no significant differences between the DS and MH subjects on movement times. Evidence for both a specific (premotor) and a generalized (both premotor and motor) locus of delay was found. Some difference in signal effect was also found for the DS subjects.
Donna L. Pastore and William G. Meacci
This study examined the process by which female coaches of NCAA Division I, II, and III institutions are recruited, selected, and retained. A total of 501 administrators and coaches of women's teams responded to a questionnaire consisting of 22 employment process statements that elicited (a) the extent to which each process was used, and (b) the importance attached to each process by the subjects. Principal component analyses of the two data sets yielded five factors: Organizational Policies, Candidate's Experience, Informal Recruiting, Formal Recruiting, and Candidate's Credentials. A 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 (Gender × Position × Division × Use of Factors) repeated measures ANOVA showed significant two-way interaction effects for gender, position, and division. Tukey's post hoc analyses indicated that Candidate's Credentials was rated highest by all subgroups. A 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 (Gender × Position × Division × Importance of Factors) repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant two-way interaction effect for division. Tukey's post hoc analyses indicated that respondents rated Candidate's Credentials and Organizational Policies highest.
Bonnie L. Parkhouse
The current status of undergraduate and graduate curricula in sport management was examined in 83 institutions identified as offering sport management programs in the United States (40 undergraduate, 32 graduate, and 11 programs at both levels). Since only two Canadian institutions responded to this inquiry, definitive conclusions could not be drawn about the current status of sport management in Canada. However, several observations about them are made on the basis of external data. The findings of this study clearly indicate that sport management curricula varies markedly from one institution to another. In most cases the institution claims to have a program in sport management per se, but in reality course offerings are not sufficient to warrant even a minor or concentration in this area. Implications of current practices in sport management are discussed, and recommendations for future development are presented.
William B. Anderson
The owners of professional basketball teams in the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the American Basketball Association (ABA) wanted to merge the 2 leagues because a war between them over players had led to escalating salaries. The National Basketball Players Association (NBPA) responded with a lawsuit to block the merger citing antitrust regulations. When the owners went to Congress to ask for a special antitrust exemption, they were denied. This case study discusses the impact of communication on legislative lobbying, specifically how the NBPA used direct and indirect lobbying techniques to block the first NBA–ABA merger attempt. This case study offers a means to understand how and why some entities succeed in their public debates, while others fail. For the scholar, this case study adds to the limited literature on legislative lobbying from a communication perspective. For the practitioner, this study provides some guidelines for the effective use of lobbying.
Joy D. Bringer, Celia H. Brackenridge and Lynne H. Johnston
Bringer, Brackenridge, and Johnston (2002) identified role conflict and ambiguity as an emerging theme for some swimming coaches who felt under increased scrutiny because of wider concerns about sexual exploitation in sport (Boocock, 2002). To further understand this emerging theme, 3 coaches who had engaged in sexual relations with athletes, or had allegations of abuse brought against them, took part in in-depth interviews. Grounded theory method (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) was adopted to explore how these coaches responded differently to increased public scrutiny. The findings are discussed in relation to how sport psychologists can help to shape perceptions of coaching effectiveness that are congruent with child protection measures. Reflective practice is proposed as one method by which coaches may embed child and athlete protection in their definition of effective coaching, rather than seeing it as an external force to which they must accommodate.
Darren C. Treasure
A total of 119 female and 114 male children (N = 233) attending six elementary schools responded to a questionnaire on their perceptions of the motivational climate of their physical education class, beliefs about the causes of success, satisfaction, perceived ability, and attitude toward the class. Students who perceived a climate oriented toward high mastery/moderate performance reported a positive attitude toward the class, high perceived ability, the belief that effort and ability cause success, and feelings of satisfaction. In contrast, students who perceived a climate oriented toward high performance/low mastery focused on ability as a cause of success, reported a negative attitude toward the class, and feelings of boredom. The pattern and strength of the findings suggest that to increase the motivation of children, physical educators should look to promote mastery, and de-emphasize performance-oriented cues in the achievement setting.
M. Kathleen Ryan, Jean M. Williams and Beverly Wimer
The present study examined the stability of athletes' legitimacy judgments and behavioral intentions over the course of a basketball season and the relationship between these factors to actual behavior. The 49 female basketball players responded to a questionnaire that was derived from Bredemeier's (1985) Continuum of Injurious Acts. The preseason legitimacy rating of aggressive actions made by first-year basketball players were significantly higher than those made by more experienced players, but by the end of the season the first-year participants' ratings had dropped to a level comparable to their more experienced teammates. Preseason legitimacy judgments were found to predict player aggression during the season. Interpretation of the findings and recommendations for future direction in this area are discussed.
Kimberly L. Oliver and Rosary Lalik
Drawing on poststructuralism and related theoretical perspectives, we worked in girls’ physical education classes to examine the development and implementation of a curriculum strand focusing on girls’ bodies. The purpose was to help adolescent girls name the discourses that shape their lives and regulate their bodies. We asked two major questions: What were the major tasks actually used during the enactment of the curriculum strand? and: What issues and concerns emerged for us as we enacted the strand and how did we respond? This study took place in a 7th–12th grade rural high school in the southern United States. We collected data during the 2000–2001 school year in three girls’ physical education classes. We conducted 14 sessions for each class and analyzed our data using the constant comparison method. Several issues emerged including: making the curriculum meaningful, offsetting task difficulties, sustaining ethical relationships, and lessening interference of research culture.