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Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Mats Hallgren, Andreas Lundin, James Mugisha and Ai Koyanagi

factors (e.g., somatic health, psychological wellbeing), social context (e.g., wealth and living arrangements), and environmental factors (e.g., urban or rural setting) interact to affect the opportunities for physically active lifestyles. In addition to these variables, we were also interested to measure

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Ray M. Merrill

protective against cardiovascular diseases, death from certain cancers, diabetes, and obesity, 22 – 25 which, in turn, may result in greater physical activity. Job types vary between urban and rural areas, with jobs in rural settings tending to be more physically demanding. Researchers have found that

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Tyler Prochnow, Haley Delgado, Megan S. Patterson and M. Renée Umstattd Meyer

“underserved.” Children living in rural, low socioeconomic status, and/or communities of color are at greater risk of not meeting PA guidelines, 70 , 71 – 74 and therefore would benefit greatly from interventions and strategies to improve PA. Taylor et al 75 found many significant differences in how various

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Kirsi E. Keskinen, Merja Rantakokko, Kimmo Suomi, Taina Rantanen and Erja Portegijs

evidence either inconclusive or inconsistent ( Barnett et al., 2017 ; Cerin et al., 2017 ; Van Cauwenberg et al., 2018 ). In previous studies, neighborhoods have been characterized as urban/rural ( Lee & Park, 2015 ), urban/suburban/rural ( Hanibuchi, Kawachi, Nakaya, Hirai, & Kondo, 2011 ; Maisel, 2016

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Weimo Zhu and Ang Chen

responsibility orientation more. In Ennis and Chen’s 1995 study, the VOI-2 was administered to physical education teachers from three rural ( n  = 186) and three urban ( n  = 295) districts. The collected data were also analyzed using a nested MANOVA model to determine the impact of school location, teaching

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Jamee A. Pelcher and Brian P. McCullough

collegiate athletic departments benchmarking 1-, 5-, and 10-year goals for the strategic plan. Smallville University Smallville University (SU) is a coeducational public regional university in a small, rural town located in North Carolina. Smallville has a population of approximately 9,000 residents. The

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Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Sebastian Miranda-Marquez, Kabir P. Sadarangani, Pia Martino-Fuentealba, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Jaime Carcamo-Oyarzun, Pedro Delgado-Floody, Damian Chandia-Poblete, Camila Mella-Garcia, Fernando Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Astrid Von Oetinger, Teresa Balboa-Castillo, Sebastian Peña, Cristobal Cuadrado, Paula Bedregal, Carlos Celis-Morales, Antonio García-Hermoso and Andrea Cortinez-O’Ryan

of active commuting to school and academic achievement in rural Chilean adolescents . Environ Health Prev Med . 2017 ; 22 ( 1 ): 31 . 29165126 10.1186/s12199-017-0628-5 9. Rodriguez-Rodriguez F , Cristi-Montero C , Celis-Morales C , Escobar-Gomez D , Chillon P . Impact of distance on

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Samuel M. Clevenger

analysis. It is important to remember that hunting, alongside horse racing, was an important national sporting “pastime” in colonial and antebellum Anglo-American culture ( Dyreson, 2014 ). For decades, historians have keyed on the ubiquity and constitutive role of rurality and frontier mythology in the

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Ricky Camplain, Julie A. Baldwin, Meghan Warren, Carolyn Camplain, Monica R. Lininger and Robert T. Trotter

intervention. Between October 2017 and April 2018, we interviewed 199 individuals ≥18 years of age who were housed at a rural county jail to assess their general health status and their physical activity participation during recreation time. 4 Briefly, participants were asked about their frequency of

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Evelin Mäestu, Merike Kull, Kerli Mooses, Jarek Mäestu, Maret Pihu, Andre Koka, Lennart Raudsepp and Jaak Jürimäe

different age groups, thus representative studies for different age groups and in different areas (e.g., rural areas and small towns are less investigated) are needed for all indicators. Conclusion The results of the present Report Card showed that there is some improvement in PA, but the proportion of