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Assuman Nuhu and Matthew Kutz

Epidemiological research on soccer injuries during African soccer competition is sparse. This study was conducted among 12 teams in the Council of East and Central Africa Football Association (CECAFA) challenge cup tournament. Fifty-seven injuries were reported (2.7 injuries per match), or 82.25 injuries per 1,000 match hours. The ankle was most often injured (23%). The majority (81%) of injuries occurred as a result of traumatic contact, with the most injuries occurring in the last 30 min of the match. A majority (84%) of athletes who sustained injuries continued to play. African medical personnel should be trained to handle the unique constraints and variety of injuries sustained during soccer competition.

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Wayne Brown and Matt Greig

The epidemiology and etiology of ankle sprain injuries in soccer have been well described. Retrospective analysis of epidemiological data identified an English Premier League player sustaining a high lateral ankle sprain. GPS data collated during the training session in which the injury was sustained, and subsequent rehabilitation sessions, were analyzed to quantify uniaxial PlayerLoad metrics. The injured player revealed a 3:1 asymmetrical loading pattern in the mediolateral plane and multiaxial high loading events which might present the inciting event to injury. The high magnitude, asymmetrical and multiplanar loading is consistent with lateral ankle sprain etiology.

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Blandine Bril

Skills From this rapid overview of what can be viewed as the cultural mark of motor behavior, several ideas emerge: skilled behavior in humans is sustained by an enormous capacity of adaptation to environmental constraints, culture being one multifaceted constraint that overlaps with others. Cultural

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Christopher M. Bouvette, Gerard A. Malanga, William P. Cooney, Michael J. Stuart and Richard W. Miller

Athletes who sustain metacarpal injuries such as nondisplaced and minimally displaced fractures or metacarpophalangeal dislocation have benefited from the use of a newly developed Plastizote hand/wrist orthotic device. This orthosis allows appropriate immobilization as well as early, safe, and effective return to contact sports during the healing process. Three case reports are presented along with applications and methods for fabricating this lightweight splint.

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Rebecca Jane Willcocks, Jon Fulford, Alan Robert Barker, Neil Armstrong and Craig Anthony Williams

The phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery time constant (τ) following exercise provides a measure of mitochondrial oxidative capacity. The purpose of this investigation was to use 2 different protocols to determine τ in adolescent females. 31P-MR spectra were collected during 2 exercise tests in 6 adolescent girls (13.8 ± 0.3 y) and 7 women (23.2 ± 3.4 y). The first test consisted of 23 repeated 4 seconds maximal isometric calf contractions separated by 12-second recovery; PCr recovery between the final 18 contractions was used to calculate τ. The second test was a sustained 20-second maximal contraction; recovery was fitted with an exponential function to measure τ. PCr τ did not significantly differ between groups: (gated exercise: 4 girls: 16 ± 5 s, 7 women: 17 ± 5 s, p; sustained exercise: 6 girls: 19 ± 6 s, 7 women: 19 ± 4 s). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a close agreement between sustained and gated exercise. Both gated and sustained exercise appear feasible in a pediatric population, and offer a noninvasive evaluation of mitochondrial oxidative capacity.

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Neil Armstrong, John Balding, Peter Gentle, Joanne Williams and Brian Kirby

The present study examined the relationship between peak V̇O2 and habitual physical activity in 11- to 16-year-old students. The peak V̇O2 of 111 girls and 85 boys was determined using treadmill or cycle ergometry. Habitual physical activity was estimated from minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring over three 12-hr periods during normal school days. Over half of the girls and one third of the boys failed to sustain a single 10-min period with their heart rate at or above 140 bpm. Only one boy sustained a daily 20-minute period with a heart rate at or above 160 bpm. During Saturday monitoring over 90% of the girls and 75% of the boys failed to sustain a single 10-min period with their heart rate at or above 140 bpm, and only one girl and four boys sustained a 20-min period with their heart rate at or above 160 bpm. No significant relationship was detected between peak V̇O2 and heart rate indicators of habitual physical activity. This study suggests that few children have periods of physical activity of sufficient intensity and duration to stress the cardiopulmonary system.

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Pål Haugnes, Per-Øyvind Torvik, Gertjan Ettema, Jan Kocbach and Øyvind Sandbakk

pacing strategy, with the main factor leading to reduction of speed being reduced cycle rate. Based on these findings, we would advise sprint XC skiers to concurrently develop both these capacities, and to employ technical strategies where a high cycle rate can be sustained when fatigue occurs. However

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Sergio Jiménez-Rubio, Archit Navandar, Jesús Rivilla-García and Victor Paredes-Hernández

kicking are among the principal causes of sustaining a hamstring injury in professional soccer. 4 , 6 Previous research suggests that there is an association between an increased risk of injury or reinjury and hip and knee biomechanical anomalies during maximal or submaximal sprinting, 7 or during

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Álvaro Cuñado-González, Aitor Martín-Pintado-Zugasti and Ángel L. Rodríguez-Fernández

and may also explain the different results between studies obtained regarding injury characteristics and associated factors. The volleyball prevalence of injuries in this study is lower than other team sports, such as soccer. 28 – 30 Elite professional European soccer players sustained a mean of 2

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Nathan Maresh and Jennifer Earl-Boehm

contacted and met with the potential participant, explained the nature and purpose of the study, and addressed any arising questions prior to obtaining consent. Participants Two student-athletes from the university’s women’s soccer team met the inclusion criteria for this study: (1) they had sustained an