This research assessed the reliability, presence of a proposed simplex pattern (construct validity), factorial validity, and multisample invariance of the Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS; Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000). In Study 1, data were collected from three physical activity samples. After establishing internal consistencies for all scales, bivariate and interfactor correlations were calculated and the results supported a simplex pattern across samples. The SIMS factorial validity across the three samples was tested via confirmatory factor analysis. Based on modification indices and theoretical justification, the SIMS was reduced to a 14-item model and the multisample invariance of this solution was examined. Results supported partial invariance. In Study 2, a total of 1,008 female PE students responded to the SIMS under two experimental conditions. Internal consistency and the assumed simplex pattern was again supported. Finally, the results of multisample CFA were consistent with the proposed post hoc model respecifications suggested in Study 1, supporting partial invariance.
Martyn Standage, Joan L. Duda, Darren C. Treasure and Keven A. Prusak
Derek N. Pamukoff, Sarah E. Bell, Eric D. Ryan and J. Troy Blackburn
Hamstring musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) is associated with lower-extremity injury risk (ie, hamstring strain, anterior cruciate ligament injury) and is commonly assessed using the damped oscillatory technique. However, despite a preponderance of studies that measure MTS reliably in laboratory settings, there are no valid clinical measurement tools. A valid clinical measurement technique is needed to assess MTS and permit identification of individuals at heightened risk of injury and track rehabilitation progress.
To determine the validity and reliability of the Myotonometer for measuring active hamstring MTS.
Descriptive laboratory study.
33 healthy participants (15 men, age 21.33 ± 2.94 y, height 172.03 ± 16.36 cm, mass 74.21 ± 16.36 kg).
Main Outcome Measures:
Hamstring MTS was assessed using the damped oscillatory technique and the Myotonometer. Intraclass correlations were used to determine the intrasession, intersession, and interrater reliability of the Myotonometer. Criterion validity was assessed via Pearson product–moment correlation between MTS measures obtained from the Myotonometer and from the damped oscillatory technique.
The Myotonometer demonstrated good intrasession (ICC3,1 = .807) and interrater reliability (ICC2,k = .830) and moderate intersession reliability (ICC2,k = .693). However, it did not provide a valid measurement of MTS compared with the damped oscillatory technique (r = .346, P = .061).
The Myotonometer does not provide a valid measure of active hamstring MTS. Although the Myotonometer does not measure active MTS, it possesses good reliability and portability and could be used clinically to measure tissue compliance, muscle tone, or spasticity associated with multiple musculoskeletal disorders. Future research should focus on portable and clinically applicable tools to measure active hamstring MTS in efforts to prevent and monitor injuries.
Kenny Guex, Chantal Daucourt and Stéphane Borloz
In the field of sport rehabilitation, an easy, valid, and reliable assessment of maximal strength is crucial for efficient muscle rehabilitation. Classically, it is performed on fitness equipment that is not necessary available in the field. Thera-Band has developed elastic bands with different resistances depending on the color of the band and on the percentage of its stretch. This may allow testing maximal strength.
To determine validity and reliability of maximal-strength assessment of knee flexors and extensors using elastic bands.
Reliability and validity study.
22 healthy participants (31.3 ± 7.0 y, 175.5 ± 8.5 cm, 70.7 ± 12.9 kg).
Participants performed 2 maximal-strength assessments, separated by 7 d, of the knee flexors and extensors using elastic bands. After the 2nd trial, a maximal concentric isokinetic test at 60°/s was performed.
Main Outcome Measures:
Correlations between 1-repetition maximum using elastic bands and peak torque on an isokinetic dynamometer were used to determine the validity of the proposed method, while ICC, CV, and SEM were used to determine reliability between the 1st and 2nd trials.
The validity of the proposed method was found to be very high (r = .93 for both knee flexors and extensors). The relative reliability was found to be very high (ICC = .98 and .99 for knee flexors and extensors, respectively), while absolute reliability was also very satisfying (CV = 3.44% and 2.33%; SEM = 1.70 and 2.16 kg for knee flexors and extensors, respectively).
Thera-Band is a valid and reliable alternative to the use of fitness equipment to test maximal strength of the knee flexors and extensors in healthy subjects. The ease of use, accessibility, and low cost of elastic bands should allow regular assessment during the rehabilitation process.
Harry G. Banyard, Ken Nosaka, Kimitake Sato and G. Gregory Haff
To examine the validity of 2 kinematic systems for assessing mean velocity (MV), peak velocity (PV), mean force (MF), peak force (PF), mean power (MP), and peak power (PP) during the full-depth free-weight back squat performed with maximal concentric effort.
Ten strength-trained men (26.1 ± 3.0 y, 1.81 ± 0.07 m, 82.0 ± 10.6 kg) performed three 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) trials on 3 separate days, encompassing lifts performed at 6 relative intensities including 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of 1RM. Each repetition was simultaneously recorded by a PUSH band and commercial linear position transducer (LPT) (GymAware [GYM]) and compared with measurements collected by a laboratory-based testing device consisting of 4 LPTs and a force plate.
Trials 2 and 3 were used for validity analyses. Combining all 120 repetitions indicated that the GYM was highly valid for assessing all criterion variables while the PUSH was only highly valid for estimations of PF (r = .94, CV = 5.4%, ES = 0.28, SEE = 135.5 N). At each relative intensity, the GYM was highly valid for assessing all criterion variables except for PP at 20% (ES = 0.81) and 40% (ES = 0.67) of 1RM. Moreover, the PUSH was only able to accurately estimate PF across all relative intensities (r = .92–.98, CV = 4.0–8.3%, ES = 0.04–0.26, SEE = 79.8–213.1 N).
PUSH accuracy for determining MV, PV, MF, MP, and PP across all 6 relative intensities was questionable for the back squat, yet the GYM was highly valid at assessing all criterion variables, with some caution given to estimations of MP and PP performed at lighter loads.
Katherine J. Riggen, Dale A. Ulrich and John C. Ozmun
The reliability and concurrent validity of the Test of Motor Impairment-Henderson Revision was evaluated employing a sample of preschoolers. Absolute reliability of the final test score was established by calculating the standard error of measurement (SEM). An SEM of .86 was obtained. The consistency of decisions related to motor impairment or nonimpairment was estimated by calculating the proportion of agreement index across two testing occasions and Kappa. A 90% agreement was obtained with Kappa equal to .71. Concurrent validity using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form as the criterion resulted in an 88% agreement between the two tests.
Gina Bravo, Pierre Gauthier, Pierre-Michel Roy, Daniel Tessier, Philippe Gaulin, Marie-France Dubois and Lucie Péloquin
A battery of field tests was recently developed to assess five fitness parameters in elderly persons. The present study examined the test-retest reliability of each item in the battery and tested the validity of the cardiorespiratory endurance item. Reliability and validity data were obtained from two convenience samples. The 29 subjects in the reliability study were community-living women enrolled in seniors’ exercise classes. The validity of the cardiorespiratory endurance item was tested by comparing it with maximal work capacity on a treadmill test. The 52 women in that part of the study were all participants in a study to assess the effect of weight-bearing exercises on women with low bone mass. Both samples were combined for a principal component analysis. Low reproducibility was observed for coordination (0.54) and strength/endurance (0.56). After slightly modifying the test protocol for these two items, reproducibility reached 84 and 94%, respectively. The correlation between the cardiorespiratory endurance score and maximal work capacity was −0.65, while that between the composite score and maximal work capacity was −0.64. Given these minor modifications, then, the Functional Fitness Assessment battery is a reliable and valid tool for assessing functional fitness in elderly women.
Andrew J. Martin, David V. Tipler, Herbert W. Marsh, Garry E. Richards and Melinda R. Williams
This study presents a new, multidimensional approach to physical activity motivation that is operationalized through four primary factors: adaptive cognitive dimensions, adaptive behavioral dimensions, impeding cognitive dimensions, and maladaptive behavioral dimensions. Among 171 Australian high school students, the study assessed the structure of this four-factor framework (a within-network construct validity approach) and also examined the relationships between motivation and three key correlates: flow in physical activity, physical self-concept, and physical activity level (a between-network construct validity approach). The four-factor framework demonstrated within-network validity in the form of reliable subscales and a sound factor structure. In terms of between-network validity, relationships between the adaptive behavioral and cognitive aspects of motivation and physical self-concept, flow, and activity levels were found to be positive and significant, whereas significant inverse relationships were found between impeding and maladaptive motivation dimensions and flow and physical self-concept. Additional analysis utilizing multiple-indicator multiple-cause (MIMIC) modeling showed that during earlier adolescence girls are more motivated than boys to engage in physical activity, but by later adolescence boys are more motivated to do so. Results are interpreted in terms of future directions for possible physical activity interventions aimed at increasing both the uptake and continuation of activity.
Elizabeth M. Mullin
Homophobia and heterosexism in women’s collegiate athletics has been predominantly researched using qualitatively methodology (e.g., Blinde & Taub, 1992; Kauer & Krane, 2006; Krane 1996, 1997; Krane & Barber, 2003). Few researchers have examined the heterosexist attitudes from a quantitative perspective and few with a sport—specific questionnaire. The researcher examined whether on-going evidence of reliability and validity for the Heterosexist Attitudes in Sport—Lesbian scale (Mullin, 2013) questionnaire would be demonstrated. Female collegiate athletes (N = 239) from the mid-Atlantic region completed the HAS-L as well as a battery of questionnaires. Approximately 4 weeks later, participants completed the HAS-L again. The HAS-L was significantly related with the Attitudes toward Lesbians subscale of the Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Males—Short scale (Herek & McLemore, 2011) and other identified correlates of heterosexism, suggesting evidence of some criterion-related and convergent validity. Internal consistency and test-retest estimates ranged from .50–85 and .64–.91, respectively. The findings demonstrate good evidence of reliability and validity for the Cognitive/Affective subscale of the HAS-L. More research is necessary to better examine the behavioral subscales. Future researchers should consider making revisions of the Avoidance of the Lesbian Label subscale to achieve acceptable levels of reliability and validity.
NiCole R. Keith, Daniel O. Clark, Timothy E. Stump, Douglas K. Miller and Christopher M. Callahan
An accurate physical fitness survey could be useful in research and clinical care.
To estimate the validity and reliability of a Self-Reported Fitness (SRFit) survey; an instrument that estimates muscular fitness, flexibility, cardiovascular endurance, BMI, and body composition (BC) in adults ≥ 40 years of age.
201 participants completed the SF-36 Physical Function Subscale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Older Adults’ Desire for Physical Competence Scale (Rejeski), the SRFit survey, and the Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test. BC, height and weight were measured. SRFit survey items described BC, BMI, and Senior Fitness Test movements. Correlations between the Senior Fitness Test and the SRFit survey assessed concurrent validity. Cronbach’s Alpha measured internal consistency within each SRFit domain. SRFit domain scores were compared with SF-36, IPAQ, and Rejeski survey scores to assess construct validity. Intraclass correlations evaluated test-retest reliability.
Correlations between SRFit and the Senior Fitness Test domains ranged from 0.35 to 0.79. Cronbach’s Alpha scores were .75 to .85. Correlations between SRFit and other survey scores were –0.23 to 0.72 and in the expected direction. Intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.79 to 0.93. All P-values were 0.001.
Initial evaluation supports the SRFit survey’s validity and reliability.
Dori E. Rosenberg, Gregory J. Norman, Nicole Wagner, Kevin Patrick, Karen J. Calfas and James F. Sallis
Sedentary behavior is related to obesity, but measures of sedentary behaviors are lacking for adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) among overweight adults.
Participants were 49 adults for the 2 week test-retest reliability study (67% female, 53% white, mean age = 20) and 401 overweight women (mean age = 41, 61% white) and 441 overweight men (mean age = 44, 81% white) for the validity study. The SBQ consisted of reports of time spent in 9 sedentary behaviors. Outcomes for validity included accelerometer measured inactivity, sitting time (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), and BMI. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) assessed reliability and partial correlations assessed validity.
ICCs were acceptable for all items and the total scale (range = .51–.93). For men, there were significant relationships of SBQ items with IPAQ sitting time and BMI. For women, there were relationships between the SBQ and accelerometer inactivity minutes, IPAQ sitting time, and BMI.
The SBQ has acceptable measurement properties for use among overweight adults. Specific measures of sedentary behavior should be included in studies and population surveillance.