Swimming has become an important area of sport science research since the 1970s, with the bioenergetic factors assuming a fundamental performance-influencing role. The purpose of this study was to conduct a critical evaluation of the literature concerning oxygen-uptake (VO2) assessment in swimming, by describing the equipment and methods used and emphasizing the recent works conducted in ecological conditions. Particularly in swimming, due to the inherent technical constraints imposed by swimming in a water environment, assessment of VO2max was not accomplished until the 1960s. Later, the development of automated portable measurement devices allowed VO2max to be assessed more easily, even in ecological swimming conditions, but few studies have been conducted in swimming-pool conditions with portable breath-by-breath telemetric systems. An inverse relationship exists between the velocity corresponding to VO2max and the time a swimmer can sustain it at this velocity. The energy cost of swimming varies according to its association with velocity variability. As, in the end, the supply of oxygen (whose limitation may be due to central—O2 delivery and transportation to the working muscles—or peripheral factors—O2 diffusion and utilization in the muscles) is one of the critical factors that determine swimming performance, VO2 kinetics and its maximal values are critical in understanding swimmers’ behavior in competition and to develop efficient training programs.
Ana Sousa, Pedro Figueiredo, David Pendergast, Per-Ludvik Kjendlie, João P. Vilas-Boas and Ricardo J. Fernandes
Renee E. Magnan, Bethany M. Kwan, Joseph T. Ciccolo, Burke Gurney, Christine M. Mermier and Angela D. Bryan
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), an assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness, is regularly used as the primary outcome in exercise interventions. Many criteria have been suggested for validating such tests—most commonly, a plateau in oxygen consumption. The current study investigated the proportion of inactive individuals who reached a plateau in oxygen uptake and who achieved a valid test as assessed by secondary criteria (RERmax ≥ 1.1; RPEmax ≥ 18; age predicted HRmax ±10bpm), and the correlates of a successful plateau or achievement of secondary criteria during a VO2max session.
Participants (n = 240) were inactive individuals who completed VO2max assessments using an incremental treadmill test. We explored physical, behavioral, and motivational factors as predictors of meeting criteria for meeting a valid test.
Approximately 59% of the sample achieved plateau using absolute (increase of VO2 of 150ml O2 or less) and 37% achieved plateau using relative (increase of VO2 of 1.5ml/kg O2 or less) criteria. Being male, having a higher BMI, a greater waist-to-hip ratio, and increased self-efficacy were associated with lower odds of achieving an absolute plateau, whereas none of these factors predicted odds of achieving relative plateau.
Findings raise questions about the validity of commonly used criteria with less active populations.
Monique Mendelson, Anne-Sophie Michallet, Julia Tonini, Anne Favre-Juvin, Michel Guinot, Bernard Wuyam and Patrice Flore
To examine the role of ventilatory constraint on cardiorespiratory fitness in obese adolescents.
Thirty obese adolescents performed a maximal incremental cycling exercise and were divided into 2 groups based on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak): those presenting low (L; n = 15; VO2peak: 72.9 ± 8.6% predicted) or normal (N; n = 15; VO2peak: 113.6 ± 19.2% predicted) cardiorespiratory fitness. Both were compared with a group of healthy controls (C; n = 20; VO2peak: 103.1 ± 11.2% predicted). Ventilatory responses were explored using the flow volume loop method.
Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, in % predicted) was lower in L compared with C and N and was moderately associated with the percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) (r = .52; p < .05) in L. At peak exercise, end inspiratory point was lower in L compared with N and C (77.4 ± 8.1, 86.4 ± 7.7, and 89.9 ± 7.6% FVC in L, N, and C, respectively; p < .05), suggesting an increased risk of ventilatory constraint in L, although at peak exercise this difference could be attributed to the lower maximal ventilation in L.
Forced vital capacity and ventilatory strategy to incremental exercise slightly differed between N and L. These results suggest a modest participation of ventilatory factors to exercise intolerance.
Andrew M. Murray, Joong Hyun Ryu, John Sproule, Anthony P. Turner, Phil Graham-Smith and Marco Cardinale
Running performance is influenced by the interaction of biomechanical and physiological factors. Miniaturized accelerometers worn by athletes can be used to quantify mechanical aspects of running and as a noninvasive tool to assess training status and progression. The aim of this study was to define and validate a method to assess running regularity and allow the estimation of an individual’s oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and/or blood lactate—[La]b—based on data collected with accelerometers and heart rate.
Male adolescent endurance athletes completed an incremental submaximal aerobic stage test where V̇O2 and [La]b were measured. The test was terminated when [La]b concentration at the end of the stage exceeded 4 mmol/L. Two wireless triaxial accelerometers were placed on participants’ right shank and lower back throughout the test. The root mean square (RMS) and sample entropy (SampEn) were calculated for the vertical, mediolateral, and anteroposterior components of acceleration.
There were significant positive correlations of acceleration and entropy variables with [La]b and V̇O2, with moderate to high coefficients (r = .43–.87). RMS of the shank acceleration was the most highly related with both physiological variables. When the accelerometer was attached on the trunk, SampEn of the vertical acceleration had the strongest relationship with V̇O2 (r = .76, P < .01).
The described method analyzing running complexity may allow an assessment of gait variability, which noninvasively tracks V̇O2 and/or [La]b, allowing monitoring of fatigue or training readiness for trained adolescent individuals.
Beverly J. Warren, Ruth G. Dotson, David C. Nieman and Diane E. Butterworth
The accuracy of a 1-mile walking test to estimate aerobic power was assessed in a group of 28 sedentary elderly women (age = 73.5 ±0.8 yrs; body mass = 66.0 ±2.2 kg). Subjects were given the walk test and a graded maximal treadmill test for VO2peak at baseline and then were randomly assigned to either a walking group or a mild calisthenics control group for 12 weeks. Both the treadmill test and the walk test were re-administered at 5 weeks and at 12 weeks. The data suggest that regression approaches underestimate measured VO2peak by 17% in sedentary elderly women, but that accuracy is much improved after 5 weeks of brisk walking. Measurements at 12 weeks demonstrated even closer approximations of the laboratory measurement of VO2peak for the walking group. The 1-mile walk test underestimated VO2peak for the calisthenics group by 11% at the end of the 12 weeks. It was concluded that the 1-mile walk test underestimates measured VO2peak in elderly women unless they are accustomed to brisk walking.
Thomas Losnegard, Martin Andersen, Matt Spencer and Jostein Hallén
To investigate the effects of an active and a passive recovery protocol on physiological responses and performance between 2 heats in sprint cross-country skiing.
Ten elite male skiers (22 ± 3 y, 184 ± 4 cm, 79 ± 7 kg) undertook 2 experimental test sessions that both consisted of 2 heats with 25 min between start of the first and second heats. The heats were conducted as an 800-m time trial (6°, >3.5 m/s, ~205 s) and included measurements of oxygen uptake (VO2) and accumulated oxygen deficit. The active recovery trial involved 2 min standing/walking, 16 min jogging (58% ± 5% of VO2peak), and 3 min standing/walking. The passive recovery trial involved 15 min sitting, 3 min walk/jog (~ 30% of VO2peak), and 3 min standing/walking. Blood lactate concentration and heart rate were monitored throughout the recovery periods.
The increased 800-m time between heat 1 and heat 2 was trivial after active recovery (effect size [ES] = 0.1, P = .64) and small after passive recovery (ES = 0.4, P = .14). The 1.2% ± 2.1% (mean ± 90% CL) difference between protocols was not significant (ES = 0.3, P = .3). In heat 2, peak and average VO2 was increased after the active recovery protocol.
Neither passive recovery nor running at ~58% of VO2peak between 2 heats changed performance significantly.
Bo Fernhall, A. Lynn Millar, Kenneth H. Pitetti, Terri Hensen and Mathew D. Vukovsch
We cross validated the 20-m shuttle run test of aerobic capacity in children and adolescents with mild and moderate mental retardation (MR) using the population specific formula of Fernhall et al. (1998). Nine boys and 8 girls (age = 13.7 yr) completed a maximal treadmill protocol (measured V̇O2peak) and a 20-m shuttle run (predicted V̇O2peak). The measured peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) was 39.4 ml kg-1 min-1. The relationship between measured and predicted V̇O2peak was r = .86 with an SEE of 6.2 ml kg-1 min-1. Multiple regression and Bland-Altman analyses showed that there was little bias, but the Bland-Altman analysis indicated highly variable limits of agreement (Bland & Altman 1986). Thus, the traditional approach (regression analysis) to concurrent validity revealed that the 20-m shuttle run is a valid indicator of V̇O2peak in these participants. The accuracy of prediction (Bland & Altman, 1986), however, was lower than expected in a population without MR.
Humberto M. Carvalho, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Joey C. Eisenmann and Robert M. Malina
Relationships among chronological age (CA), maturation, training experience, and body dimensions with peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) were considered in male basketball players 14–16 y of age. Data for all players included maturity status estimated as percentage of predicted adult height attained at the time of the study (Khamis-Roche protocol), years of training, body dimensions, and VO2max (incremental maximal test on a treadmill). Proportional allometric models derived from stepwise regressions were used to incorporate either CA or maturity status and to incorporate years of formal training in basketball. Estimates for size exponents (95% CI) from the separate allometric models for VO2max were height 2.16 (1.23–3.09), body mass 0.65 (0.37–0.93), and fat-free mass 0.73 (0.46–1.02). Body dimensions explained 39% to 44% of variance. The independent variables in the proportional allometric models explained 47% to 60% of variance in VO2max. Estimated maturity status (11–16% of explained variance) and training experience (7–11% of explained variance) were significant predictors with either body mass or estimated fat-free mass (P ≤ .01) but not with height. Biological maturity status and training experience in basketball had a significant contribution to VO2max via body mass and fat-free fat mass and also had an independent positive relation with aerobic performance. The results highlight the importance of considering variation associated with biological maturation in aerobic performance of late-adolescent boys.
Saul R. Bloxham, Joanne R. Welsman and Neil Armstrong
This study examined ergometer-specific relationships between short-term power and peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) in children. Boys (n = 28) and girls (n = 28) age 11-12 years completed two incremental tests to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer and motorized treadmill for the determination of peak VO2. In addition, they completed two 30 s “all-out” sprint tests, one on a cycle ergometer and one on a nonmotorized treadmill for the assessment of peak power (PP) and mean power (MP). Relationships between peak VO2 and shortterm power measures were examined by sex for cycle- and treadmill-derived data using simple per-body-mass ratios and sample-specific allometric exponents to control for body size differences. From correlational analyses on scaled data, sex differences in responses were shown. In boys, PP and MP were unrelated to peak VO2 for cycle-derived measures but significantly related (r = 0.58 PP; r = 0.69 MP) for treadmill values. PP and MP were significantly related to peak VO2 for both modes of exercise in girls (r = .41−.68). In all but one case, correlation coefficients based on mass-related data were higher than those based on allometrically adjusted data.
Danette M. Rogers, Kenneth R. Turley, Kathleen I. Kujawa, Kevin M. Harper and Jack H. Wilmore
This study was designed to examine the relationship between oxygen consumption and both body surface area and body mass in children to determine what allometric scaling factors from these variables provide appropriate means of expressing data for this population. These scaling factors were then compared to exponents based on theoretical and animal models to determine if the same relationships were present. Forty-two children (21 boys and 21 girls) 7 to 9 years of age participated in maximal and submaximal treadmill testing. The submaximal V̇O2 to body size relationship proved to be a more appropriate factor to use when scaling V̇O2 than the relationship seen between body size and V̇O2max. Therefore, in this population of children, V̇O2 relative to body surface area or body mass to the power 0.67, demonstrated submaximally, provided a more appropriate means of data expression both statistically and physiologically than the traditional expression of V̇O2 relative to body mass (ml·kg−1·min−1).