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Ruth P. Saunders, Rod K. Dishman, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate

Most children and adolescents do not meet the current physical activity (PA) recommendations 1 , 2 despite the well-documented benefits of regular PA. 3 The PA interventions designed to address this public health problem have yielded modest effects. 4 , 5 Interventions are effective only if the

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Bethany Alice Jones, Emma Haycraft, Walter Pierre Bouman and Jon Arcelus

Physical activity is defined as any activity (eg, while working, playing, carrying out household chores, and recreational pursuits) that involves muscular–skeletal movement and energy expenditure. 1 In 2010, 23% of adults around the world were not active enough, 1 highlighting that inactivity

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Carol M. Vos, Denise M. Saint Arnault, Laura M. Struble, Nancy A. Gallagher and Janet L. Larson

Assisted living (AL) residents engage in very low levels of physical activity (PA) ( Krol-Zielinska, Kusy, Zielinski, & Osinski, 2010 ), and this is a problem. Most activities revolve around participation in self-care, such as bathing and dressing ( Resnick, Galik, Gruber-Baldini, & Zimmerman, 2011

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Aysha M. Thomas, Kayleigh M. Beaudry, Kimbereley L. Gammage, Panagiota Klentrou and Andrea R. Josse

There is a large body of evidence supporting the essential role of regular physical activity (PA) and exercise for the maintenance of good health and well-being. 1 Although most university students are aware of the benefits of PA and structured exercise, previous literature demonstrates that the

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Angela Maria Hoyos-Quintero and Herney Andrés García-Perdomo

Physical activity brings benefits to human health, reducing the risk of suffering from chronic noncommunicable diseases. Its performance depends on both internal and external factors, which has led researchers to emphasize social factors as decisive in human health. As the behaviors acquired in

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Anna E. Mathews, Natalie Colabianchi, Brent Hutto, Delores M. Pluto and Steve P. Hooker


The objectives of this study were to assess (1) pedestrian activity levels among adults, (2) where and why adults engage in pedestrian activity, and (3) what adults consider when deciding where to engage in pedestrian activity.


Pedestrian activity was assessed in 12,036 California adults, ≥18 years, using a random digit-dial telephone survey.


Significant differences were identified by race, sex, age, and physical activity level in the type, location, and purpose of pedestrian activities. Men engage in pedestrian activity at work, and women engage in pedestrian activity while escorting children to school and running errands. Whites primarily engage in leisure-time pedestrian activity, and non-whites are more likely to engage in pedestrian activity for transportation. Older adults were less active than their younger counterparts.


These findings should be considered by public health agencies and their partners as they continue to increase and promote opportunities for pedestrian activity. Additional research is needed to assess older adults’ physical activity patterns and preferences, barriers, and facilitators to effectively tailor physical activity promotion efforts to this at-risk group.

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Viviene A. Temple, Dawn L. Lefebvre, Stephanie C. Field, Jeff R. Crane, Beverly Smith and Patti-Jean Naylor

-being of children ( Cushon, Vu, Janzen, & Muhajarine, 2011 ), children’s physical activity levels ( Simen-Kapeu & Veugelers, 2010 ; Singh, Kogan, Siahpush, & van Dyck, 2008 ), and school readiness ( Santos, Brownell, & Ekuma, 2012 ). Disadvantage in childhood is also associated with the manifestation of

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Mohanraj Krishnan, Andrew N. Shelling, Clare R. Wall, Edwin A. Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M.E. McCowan and John M.D. Thompson

opportunities to expend energy ( 17 ). Notably, children are becoming more obese, facilitated by the changing nature of habitual physical activity norms and the perception of a normal body image ideal ( 17 ). Often, obesity persists into adulthood and is associated with increased risk of obesity and its related

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Sanne L.C. Veldman, Rachel A. Jones, Rebecca M. Stanley, Dylan P. Cliff, Stewart A. Vella, Steven J. Howard, Anne-Maree Parrish and Anthony D. Okely

Time spent in after-school programs (which can range from 3 to 6 PM on school days) has been identified as a critical window for the promotion of physical activity and academic enrichment. 1 This time period is typically characterized by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior 2

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Iréné Lopez-Fontana, Carole Castanier, Christine Le Scanff and Alexandra Perrot

research in recent decades ( Andel et al., 2008 ; Kåreholt, Lennartsson, Gatz, & Parker, 2011 ). Physical activity has largely been considered a promising strategy in slowing age-related cognitive decline by maintaining brain health and neuroplasticity throughout life (see Bherer, Erickson, & Liu