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David L. Porretta, John Nesbitt and Stan Labanowich

This article addresses the issue of terminology by discussing the terms adapted physical education, adapted physical recreation, adapted sport, and adapted physical activity. Reasons are presented which suggest that these terms, taken collectively, may best describe movement of a gross motor nature that pertains to individuals with disabilities. A terminology framework is then proposed that is based on both conceptual and practical programmatic considerations within the context of service delivery. This context utilizes all four of the above terms, which are presented within the notion of inclusion. The terms adapted physical education, adapted physical recreation, and adapted sport are conceptualized within the context of adapted physical activity. Within this service delivery context, adapted physical education refers to all curriculum-based instructional settings in educationally oriented environments, adapted physical recreation refers to activity in nonschool contexts, and adapted sport refers to high-level competition by elite performers under the governance of formal sport organizations.

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Gabriella McLoughlin, Courtney Weisman Fecske, Yvette Castaneda, Candace Gwin and Kim Graber

), which is significantly less than those without physical disabilities ( Disabled Sports USA, 2009 ). Adapted physical activity in today’s context is conceived as “adaptations that could facilitate physical activity across a wide range of individual differences” ( Reid, 2003 , p. 22). Reid ( 2003 ) argued

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Emily J. Sleeman and Noora J. Ronkainen

, 2016 ; Partington & Cushion, 2013 ). The popular discourse that constructs coaching philosophy in a technical manner rather than in a deep, self-examining manner could be partly attributed to coach education programs and coaching courses adapting the phrase “coaching philosophy” to mean coaching style

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Franco M. Impellizzeri, Samuele M. Marcora and Aaron J. Coutts

, exercises induce a functional adaptive response. It is these functional adaptations that underpin changes in various training outcomes such as physical performance, injury resistance, or health. The exercise bout induces a psychophysiological response, and it is this response (rather than the exercise task

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Tsz Lun (Alan) Chu, Tao Zhang, Katherine T. Thomas, Xiaoxia Zhang and Xiangli Gu

( Xiang, McBride, Lin, Gao, & Francis, 2018 ). Thus, gender should be considered when studying the associations between motivational factors and adaptive outcomes in PE ( Taylor, Ntoumanis, Standage, & Spray, 2010 ; van Aart, Hartman, Elferink-Gemser, Mombarg, & Visscher, 2017 ). More empirical evidence

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Mey A. van Munster, Laureen J. Lieberman and Michelle A. Grenier

different instructional approaches in PE classes to accommodate SWDs’ needs, within a particular school district of New York State. As the analysis included outcomes from several participants in a single setting—an adapted PE (APE) specialist, PE teachers, and SWDs—it can be considered an embedded case

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Lijuan Wang

lack of adapted activities, construction barriers, lack of teacher support, and weak sports ability contribute to limited participation and negative emotion of students with physical disabilities. Goodwin and Watkinson ( 2000 ) examined PE inclusion from the perspectives of students with special needs

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Romana Puchegger and Toni Bruce

that enable adaptive practice. In so doing, it supports Keating et al.’s ( 2017 ) call for more research on “the complexity, nurturing, and reshaping of PE identities” (p. 162). Complexity Thinking Complexity thinking poses a significant challenge to many of the dominant ways in which teacher identity

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Summer Davis, Xihe Zhu and Justin Haegele

others can also be attributions for an outcome. Attributions are said to be adaptive when a success is attributed to internal, stable, and personally controllable factors (e.g., ability), and when a failure is attributed to factors that are internal, unstable, and personally controllable (e

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Christopher C. Webster, Jeroen Swart, Timothy D. Noakes and James A. Smith

intensities required for elite competition, which rely heavily on glucose oxidation for energy production. 2 , 3 This case study documents a 34-year-old male elite-level endurance athlete. He is exceptionally well fat-adapted having followed a strict LCHF diet, which included only ingesting plain water