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Mary O. Whipple, Erica N. Schorr, Kristine M.C. Talley, Ruth Lindquist, Ulf G. Bronas and Diane Treat-Jacobson

heterogeneity among older adults with respect to health, physical function, work and leisure activities, and social environment ( Lowsky, Olshansky, Bhattacharya, & Goldman, 2014 ). This is supported by limited evidence from resistance training studies, which suggests that variation in training adaptations may

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Chung-Chao Liang, Qi-Xing Change, Yu-Chou Hung, Chizan-Chung Chen, Chun-Hsiang Lin, Yu-Chun Wei and Jia-Ching Chen

, height, weight, and education, were also recorded. The physical performance and balance measures were evaluated as follows. Elderly Mobility Scale The Elderly Mobility Scale (EMS), applied in the physical function test, comprises seven items: lying down to sitting, sitting to lying down, sitting to

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Emma Renehan, Claudia Meyer, Rohan A. Elliott, Frances Batchelor, Catherine Said, Terry Haines and Dianne Goeman

, exhaustion, physical activity, walk time, and grip strength. If ≥3 criteria were positive, the older person was deemed frail. For 1–2 positive criteria, the older adult is considered prefrail and considered not frail if no criteria are positive; e. Physical function was assessed using the Katz Index of

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Matti Hyvärinen, Sarianna Sipilä, Janne Kulmala, Harto Hakonen, Tuija H. Tammelin, Urho M. Kujala, Vuokko Kovanen and Eija K. Laakkonen

), grip strength ( Gale, Martyn, Cooper, & Sayer, 2007 ; Rantanen et al., 1999 ; Sasaki, Kasagi, Yamada, & Fujita, 2007 ), and lower-extremity muscle strength and power ( Newman, Kupelian, et al., 2006 ; Reid & Fielding, 2012 ), are of importance for assessing health-related physical functioning

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Elissa Burton, Karen Levit, Jim Codde, Keith D. Hill and Anne-Marie Hill

, & Mozaffarian, 2016 ), improved quality of life ( Brown, Carroll, Workman, Carlson, & Brown, 2014 ) and physical function ( Almeida et al., 2014 ; Hillsdon, Brunner, Guralnik, & Marmot, 2005 ), decreased cognitive decline ( Sofi et al., 2011 ), and reduced mortality rates ( Hupin et al., 2015 ). Many of the

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Baptiste Fournier, Maxime Lussier, Nathalie Bier, Johanne Filiatrault, Manon Parisien, Miguel Chagnon and Marie-Ève Mathieu

mean (SD) Adjusted mean difference (95% CI) Pre mean (SD) Post mean (SD) Adjusted mean difference (95% CI) Physical function  Arm Curl (times/30 s) 14.6 (4.0) a 16.2 (5.0) 1.63 (0.8 to 2.5) 15.7 (3.1) 15.3 (3.4) −0.41 (−1.4 to 0.6)  Chair Stand (times/30 s) 12.1 (3.2) 13.0 (3.4) 0.89 (0.4 to 1.4) 13

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Nathanial J. Kapsal, Theresa Dicke, Alexandre J.S. Morin, Diego Vasconcellos, Christophe Maïano, Jane Lee and Chris Lonsdale

/cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength/endurance, physiological outcomes, physical functioning, and balance/core stability. The psychosocial health outcomes examined in this review were similar to those used in a review focused on the psychosocial benefits of sport for typically developing youth. 3 These outcomes

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Kenneth E. Powell and Steven N. Blair

physical activity is sufficient An additive effect on weight loss when combined with moderate dietary restriction Older adults, falls and physical function Reduced incidence of fall-related injuries Improved physical function in older adults with and without frailty Reduced incidence of falls Improved

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Mary Hellen Morcelli, Dain Patrick LaRoche, Luciano Fernandes Crozara, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Camilla Zamfolini Hallal, Mauro Gonçalves and Marcelo Tavella Navega

of torque development has been associated with gait speed 11 , 16 and could be a better predictor of physical function as it considers the temporal component of force application. Despite the strong probability that rate of torque development is a good predictor of lower-extremity function of older

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Edgar R. Vieira, Ruth Tappen, Sareen S. Gropper, Maria T. Severi, Gabriella Engstrom, Marcio R. de Oliveira, Alexandre C. Barbosa and Rubens A. da Silva

increasing numbers ( Thomas-Hope, 2016 ). However, language barriers and age-related functional decline make it difficult for them to integrate into new communities and they often become isolated and deconditioned ( McCaffrey, 2008 ). Physical function impairment is also associated with living in