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Oleg Zaslavsky, Yan Su, Eileen Rillamas-Sun, Inthira Roopsawang and Andrea Z. LaCroix

, and BMI were collected clinically during the LLS home visit. The SPPB included timed gait speed, repeated chair stands, and a balance test and was scored from 0 to 12 (a higher score represented better physical functioning) based on the sum of the three individual tests ( Guralnik et al., 1994 ). Grip

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Sungchul Lee, Sangyoon Lee, Seongryu Bae, Kazuhiro Harada, Songee Jung, Keitaro Makino and Hiroyuki Shimada

equivalents while in a sitting or reclining position. Sedentary time is both a determinant and consequence of disease progression in CKD, with physical inactivity and low physical functioning associated with increased mortality in dialysis patients ( O’Hare, Tawney, Bacchetti, & Johansen, 2003 ). Furthermore

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Ece Acar, Tamer Çankaya and Serkan Öner

, physical function, and physical role difficulty scores were applied as subscale of short form-36. Thickness of trunk muscles was determined with anteroposterior (AP) diameter measurement using ultrasound imaging in upper rectus abdominis (URA), central rectus abdominis (CRA), lower rectus abdominis (LRA

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Heather J. Leach, Katie B. Potter and Mary C. Hidde

cancer treatments have on fatigue, 2 , 3 physical function, 4 , 5 and quality of life, 6 and may reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer-related mortality, and all-cause mortality. 7 – 10 Breast cancer survivors’ PA tends to decline and remain low following treatment, 11 , 12 and previous

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Rachel R. Kleis, Janet E. Simon, Michael Turner, Luzita I. Vela, Abbey C. Thomas and Phillip A. Gribble

factors, including markers of general health, should be examined. Body mass index (BMI) provides an estimate of body composition, with high BMI suggesting high body fat presence. 31 High BMI is associated with poor physical function 32 – 34 and HRQoL, 33 as well as increased risk of cardiovascular

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Mary O. Whipple, Erica N. Schorr, Kristine M.C. Talley, Ruth Lindquist, Ulf G. Bronas and Diane Treat-Jacobson

heterogeneity among older adults with respect to health, physical function, work and leisure activities, and social environment ( Lowsky, Olshansky, Bhattacharya, & Goldman, 2014 ). This is supported by limited evidence from resistance training studies, which suggests that variation in training adaptations may

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Jolanthe de Koning, Suzanne Richards and Afroditi Stathi

original SF-36 summary scores using data from general population surveys from nine European countries ( Ware & Gandek, 1998 ) and had acceptable reproducibility in psychometric performance in a range of populations ( Ware, Kosinski, & Keller, 1996 ). Lower-limb physical function, measured by the short

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Emma Renehan, Claudia Meyer, Rohan A. Elliott, Frances Batchelor, Catherine Said, Terry Haines and Dianne Goeman

, exhaustion, physical activity, walk time, and grip strength. If ≥3 criteria were positive, the older person was deemed frail. For 1–2 positive criteria, the older adult is considered prefrail and considered not frail if no criteria are positive; e. Physical function was assessed using the Katz Index of

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Chung-Chao Liang, Qi-Xing Change, Yu-Chou Hung, Chizan-Chung Chen, Chun-Hsiang Lin, Yu-Chun Wei and Jia-Ching Chen

, height, weight, and education, were also recorded. The physical performance and balance measures were evaluated as follows. Elderly Mobility Scale The Elderly Mobility Scale (EMS), applied in the physical function test, comprises seven items: lying down to sitting, sitting to lying down, sitting to

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Matti Hyvärinen, Sarianna Sipilä, Janne Kulmala, Harto Hakonen, Tuija H. Tammelin, Urho M. Kujala, Vuokko Kovanen and Eija K. Laakkonen

), grip strength ( Gale, Martyn, Cooper, & Sayer, 2007 ; Rantanen et al., 1999 ; Sasaki, Kasagi, Yamada, & Fujita, 2007 ), and lower-extremity muscle strength and power ( Newman, Kupelian, et al., 2006 ; Reid & Fielding, 2012 ), are of importance for assessing health-related physical functioning