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Philip E. Martin and Gary D. Heise

Archery instructors believe that force distribution (FD) between the hand and bow grip can have a considerable effect on arrow flight, but there is no empirical support for this speculation. This study examined FD on the bow grip in experienced archers and explored the possible relationships between FD, performance, and fatigue. FD was quantified for 15 experienced archers (8 highly skilled [HS] and 7 less skilled [LS]) using 15 unobtrusive force sensors as each archer completed 72 shots. Arrow position relative to the target center, estimated net moments and moment arms about vertical and horizontal axes through the grip, and shot-to-shot variability in the estimated moments and moment arms were computed for three blocks of six shots. Results demonstrated that (a) estimated moments and moment arms were not consistently related to observed vertical or horizontal deviations in arrow position, (b) there were no systematic differences in FD between HS and LS archers, (c) fatigue had no quantifiable effect on FD, and (d) HS archers displayed less shot-to-shot variability in vertical FD than LS archers, but similar variability horizontally. Results did not support the above-noted common belief of archery instructors.

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Austin Swain and Graham Jones

This study examined the relationship between sport achievement orientation and cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence in a sample of male (n=60) track and field athletes. Subjects responded to the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) on five occasions during the precompetition period and also completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ). Stepwise multiple-regression analyses were employed in order to determine whether any of the SOQ subscales emerged as significant predictors of the CSAI-2 subscale scores. The dominant predictor to emerge for each anxiety subcomponent was the competitiveness subscale. The subjects were then dichotomized into high and low groups of competitiveness by means of the median-split technique. Two-way analyses of variance revealed significant group by time-to-competition interactions for both cognitive and somatic anxiety. In the case of cognitive anxiety, the high competitive group exhibited no change across time; the low competitive group showed a progressive increase as the competition neared. Findings for somatic anxiety revealed that the low competitive group reported an earlier elevation in the somatic response. Significant main effects of both time-to-event and group (but no interaction) were found for self-confidence. The findings revealed that the high competitive group, although reporting higher levels of self-confidence throughout the experimental period, reported reduced self-confidence on the day of competition; in the low competitive group, self-confidence remained stable. These results suggest that the precompetition temporal patterning of the multidimensional anxiety subcomponents differ as a function of competitiveness.

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Alex Stacoff, Jachen Denoth, Xaver Kaelin and Edgar Stuessi

Shock attenuation of the impact peak and overpronation are both considered important in running shoe design. A number of investigations indicate that both of these factors are related to various running injuries. These indications are mostly empirical or based on statistics and often show a lack of arguments to relate external measurements to internal loading of joints or muscles. The purpose of this paper is to present some relationships between impact peak, pronation, and forces at the subtalar joint and on muscles (which are in tension in pronation) during touchdown in rearfoot running. The calculations show that the material properties of the shoe sole (altered from Shore A20 to A50) largely influence the rearfoot movements during touchdown (increase in pronation velocity from 7 to 25 rad/s) and increase to some extent the muscle forces on the medial side (600 to 850 N) of the subtalar joint. In comparison, the impact peak (1550 to 1600 N) and the ankle joint forces (2500 to 2700 N) change very little. Hence, running shoe design should be focused more on the control of the rearfoot movement during touchdown and less on pure shock attenuation.

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Shelly T. Sheinbein, Trent A. Petrie, Scott Martin and Christy A. Greenleaf

Background:

A lot of evidence showed that boys and girls are at high risk of developing major or minor depression in adolescence. Increases in physical fitness have been associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms, yet the mechanisms that underlie (or mediate) this relationship have not been thoroughly examined.

Methods:

528 boys (mean age = 12.33 years) and 507 girls (mean age = 12.32 years) drawn from a suburban school district participated. Self-report measures were used to assess the mediators (body satisfaction and social physique anxiety) and the outcome (depression); the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) in conjunction with age, Body Mass Index (BMI), and sex were used to determine an objective estimate of cardiorespiratory fitness. Path analyses were used to test the proposed models.

Results:

The effects of fitness on depressive symptoms were mediated through body satisfaction and social physique anxiety; 25% to 35% of the depression variance was explained.

Conclusion:

Boys’ and girls’ depression scores were based on the extent that their fitness levels improved their body satisfaction and lowered their social physique anxiety; body satisfaction was particularly important for girls. Thus, early adolescents’ psychological well-being may be enhanced through improvements in aerobic functioning.

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Robert Weinberg, Allen Jackson and Kathleen Kolodny

The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the relationship between exercise, massage, and positive mood enhancement. Subjects were students in physical education classes including swimming, jogging, tennis, and racquetball, with each separate activity comprising a level of the primary independent treatment variable. In addition, subjects from other classes made up a control rest condition and a massage treatment condition resulting in a one-way design. All subjects completed the profile of mood states, state anxiety, and an activation checklist just prior to and immediately after 30 minutes of activity. Instructors in the classes agreed not to schedule any competitions between students but rather just let them play or exercise. Subjects in the control rest condition read or rested for 30 minutes, while in the massage treatment condition a certified massage therapist gave a 30-min Swedish massage. Results indicated that the running and massage conditions consistently produced positive mood enhancement with significant decreases in tension, confusion, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and anger while maintaining high levels of vigor, which is representative of positive mental health. None of the other experimental activity conditions significantly influenced the dependent variables. Practical applications of the use of massage both before and after competition and exercise are discussed, and future directions for research are offered.

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Judy Dale and Robert S. Weinberg

The literature on burnout has concentrated on the human service and helping professions, although recently some researchers have investigated the burnout phenomenon in sport. The present investigation focused on high school and college head coaches to determine if burnout is related to leadership style. Subjects (N=302) were high school coaches from Texas and college coaches from the Southwest and Southeast Conferences. Coaches completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ), Social Desirability Scale (SDS), and a demographic data sheet. A MANOVA indicated a significant relationship between burnout and leadership style in four of the six subscales of the MBI. Specificially, coaches who displayed a consideration style of leadership behavior scored significantly higher in the frequency and intensity dimensions of the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales. In addition, a significant gender difference revealed that male coaches scored higher in both the frequency and intensity dimensions of the depersonalization subscales. Results are discussed in terms of leadership theory, and practical implications are offered for reducing burnout in coaches.

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Jennifer Y. Mak and Chong Kim

Leadership development is important for society, and participating in athletics and student organizations has provided opportunities for young adults to develop and display leadership qualities (Dobosz & Beaty, 1999; Knoppers, 2011; Todd & Kent, 2004; Williams, Roberts, & Bosselman, 2011). The empirical research examining the leadership development through athletics and student organizations involvement has, unfortunately, been limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify and investigate the relationship among gender, athletic involvement, and student organization involvement in relation to transformational leadership skills. Stratified random sampling and the Salant and Dillman (1994) survey methodology procedure were adopted for data collection. Data were collected from 992 college students (493 females and 495 males) in a Mid-Atlantic university. The Transformational Leadership Scale (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2004) was used as the instrument to measure the variables. Descriptive statistics and factorial ANOVA were used for data analysis. Results showed significant differences existed among gender, athletic involvement, and student organization involvement in relation to transformational leadership skills. Females, athletes, and student officers received significantly higher scores than males, nonathletes and nonstudent officers in transformational leadership.

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Pedro Morouço, Kari L. Keskinen, João Paulo Vilas-Boas and Ricardo Jorge Fernandes

The purpose of the current study was to identify the relationships between competitive performance and tether forces according to distance swam, in the four strokes, and to analyze if relative values of force production are better determinants of swimming performance than absolute values. The subjects (n = 32) performed a 30 s tethered swimming all-out effort. The competitive swimming velocities were obtained in the distances 50, 100 and 200 m using official chronometric values of competitions within 25 days after testing protocol. Mean force and velocity (50 m event) show significant correlations for front crawl (r = .92, p < .01), backstroke (r = .81, p < .05), breaststroke (r = .94, p < .01) and butterfly (r = .92, p < .01). The data suggests that absolute values of force production are more associated to competitive performance than relative values (normalized to body mass). Tethered swimming test seems to be a reliable protocol to evaluate the swimmer stroking force production and a helpful estimator of competitive performance in short distance competitive events.

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Gertrud Pfister

In Germany there is a huge discrepancy between positive attitudes toward physical activity and actual practice of sport. According to representative studies more than 80% of the population is convinced that for various reasons, especially those of health, it is very important to take up a sport (Kaschuba, 1989). However, only 21% of the male and no more than 14% of the female population (older than 14) were reported to practice a sport at least once a week (Opaschowski, 1995).

This article focuses on the question of how a relationship to sport develops in the course of the lives of girls and women. The empirical data derives from a project on “Sport in the Lives of Women” in which women active in football (soccer), gymnastics/aerobics and tennis were interviewed about their biographies and their experience with physical activities. The theoretical background is based on approaches towards life course and biography, gender and gender relations, and socialization. Typical patterns of sport involvement in the different stages of life, e.g. the important role of the parents in early childhood and the importance of peers at school were found.,.

In addition, different types of sport commitment could be identified. Certain patterns, for example, were dependent on the combination of the simultaneous practice of different types of sport and the alternation between practice and non-practice of sport. In this way it was possible to distinguish between all-round sportswomen and women who practice sport for reasons of health. In general, sport biographies develop through the close interaction of social factors and individual decisions.

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Nathaly Gaudreault, Alex Fuentes, Neila Mezghani, Virginie O. Gauthier and Katia Turcot

Context:

Decreased flexibility in muscles and joints of lower extremities is commonly observed in runners. Understanding the effect of decreased flexibility on knee walking kinematics in runners is important because, over time, altered gait patterns can make runners vulnerable to overuse injuries or degenerative pathologies.

Objectives:

To compare hamstring and iliotibial-band (ITB) flexibility and knee kinematics in runners and nonrunners.

Design:

A descriptive, comparative laboratory study.

Setting:

Hamstring and ITB flexibility were measured with the active knee-extension test and the modified Ober test, respectively, in both groups of participants. Three-dimensional (3D) walking kinematic data were then recorded at the knee using a motiontracking system.

Participants:

18 runners and 16 nonrunners.

Main Outcome Measures:

Knee-extension angle (hamstring flexibility) and hip-adduction angle (ITB flexibility). Knee kinematic parameters of interest included knee angle at initial contact, peak knee angles, and knee-angle range in all planes of movement.

Results:

The runners had a significantly less flexible ITB than the nonrunners (hip adduction [−] and adduction [+] angles, 3.1° ± 5.6° vs −6.4° ± 4.5°; P < .001). The runners demonstrated a greater mean tibial external-rotation angle at initial contact (7.3° ± 5.8° vs 2.0° ± 4.0°; P = .01) and a smaller mean peak tibial internal-rotation angle (−1.6° ± 3.0° vs −4.2° ± 3.2°; P = .04) than the nonrunners.

Conclusion:

This study provides new insight into the relationship between muscle flexibility and 3D knee kinematics in runners. This supports the premise that there is an association between muscle flexibility and transverse-plane knee kinematics in this population.