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, UK Body image and exercise: How might appearance concerns prevent (or promote) exercise in young women Researchers tend to find more positive body image in women who exercise than those who do not, and experimental studies show that women randomly allocated to exercise conditions report more positive

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Jenny Meggs, Mark Chen and Danielle Mounfield

lower 2D4D ratios were indicative of faster race times in national level rowers). Moreover, Paul, Kato, Hunkin, Vivekanandan, and Spector ( 2006 ) also found a negative association between digit ratio and running performance in females. Some meta-analyses have reported similar trends. For example

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Erin E. Redihan

their best in international competition, look to secure funding for the top American athletes, and address other related matters. 30 The commission’s intent would be to produce a report for the president and Congress in time to make changes for the 1976 Games. The Nixon administration briefly explored

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Jamie Cleland, Stacey Pope and John Williams

racialized and sexist and misogynistic behavior, chants, and verbal abuse, as well as nonverbal comments on social media, can constitute forms of exclusion within the culture of men’s football in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. For example, in 2015, the U.K. national broadcaster, the BBC, reported that

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Gwendolyn M. Weatherford, Betty A. Block and Fredrick L. Wagner

our purpose, how that intersects with concepts of gender. To begin, Bergvall ( 1999 ) reported that a primary communal construct relative to virtually all facets of society is gender. Gender (innate, achieved, or ascribed gender assigned by the use of gendered language, gender typical behaviors

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Justine B. Allen and Colleen Reid

program ( Demers, 2009 ) and the House of Commons Standing Committee Report outlining key education, policy, and advocacy recommendations to advance women coaches ( Demers & Kerr, 2018 ) provide examples of national initiatives across sports. Complementing such large scale cross-sport initiatives, the

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April Henning and Jörg Krieger

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) reported $5.7 billion in revenue for the period 2013–2016, of which it distributed ninety percent to affiliated organizations, including Games Organizing Committees, International Federations, and National Olympic Committees. 1 The vast majority of the IOC

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Pınar Öztürk and Canan Koca

of women has increased, and football has become one of the most popular sports among women and girls ( Klein, 2018 ; Meier, 2020 ; Williams, 2014 ; Woodward, 2017 ). In 2012, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association reported that more than 29 million women played football across the

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Callie Batts Maddox

players often focused on domestic tasks expected of women instead of their sporting achievements, with some articles reporting that they “stayed fit by dusting the house” and killed time in the dugout by darning their husbands’ socks. 37 The image of softball, similar to baseball but played on a smaller

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Tanya K. Jones

rule would have been enforced on either player, the author questions whether the rule would have truly been applied had Goalby’s card had the calculation error. Nicholson continues exploring racial issues in sport through the 1968 Kentucky Derby doping scandal. Official reports explain that Dancer