This study described and analyzed the managerial work in Canadian intercollegiate athletics. The directors of 37 Canadian intercollegiate athletic departments responded to a questionnaire eliciting perceived importance of, time devoted to, and percentage responsibility for 19 managerial activities carried out by athletic departments. These managerial activities were largely patterned after Mintzberg's (1975) description of managerial work and were verified by a group of experts. Results showed that financial management, leadership, policy making, disturbance handling, revenue generation, and a Mete affairs were perceived to be the most important and most time consuming activities. Information seeking, maintenance activities, and league responsibilities were rated the least important. The athletic directors reported that they were largely responsible for the more important tasks with average percent responsibility of 55%. The average responsibility assigned to assistant directors was 29.5%, and this limited responsibility was significantly but inversely related to the importance of the tasks.
Karen E. Danylchuk and Packianathan Chelladurai
M. Kathleen Ryan, Jean M. Williams and Beverly Wimer
The present study examined the stability of athletes' legitimacy judgments and behavioral intentions over the course of a basketball season and the relationship between these factors to actual behavior. The 49 female basketball players responded to a questionnaire that was derived from Bredemeier's (1985) Continuum of Injurious Acts. The preseason legitimacy rating of aggressive actions made by first-year basketball players were significantly higher than those made by more experienced players, but by the end of the season the first-year participants' ratings had dropped to a level comparable to their more experienced teammates. Preseason legitimacy judgments were found to predict player aggression during the season. Interpretation of the findings and recommendations for future direction in this area are discussed.
Iva Obrusnikova, Martin Block and Suzanna Dillon
Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) was used to elicit salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs of children without disabilities toward playing with a hypothetical peer with a disability in general physical education. Participants were 350 elementary and middle school students who completed two questionnaires. Questionnaires were assessed for content validity. Participants provided more affective (68%) than instrumental (32%) responses for favorable behavioral beliefs and more instrumental (76%) than affective (24%) responses for unfavorable beliefs. Peer social pressure was prevalent in favorable (69%) and unfavorable (99%) responses. Social pressure significantly varied across five grades, χ2(4, N = 448) = 40.51, p < .01. Participants responded many factors in the class would positively (76%) or negatively (89%) influence the behavior.
David Kahan and Thomas L. McKenzie
Physical education (PE) is mandated in most states, but few studies of PE in private schools exist.
We assessed selected PE policies and practices in private secondary schools (grades 6 to 12) in California using a 15-item questionnaire related to school characteristics and their PE programs.
Responding schools (n = 450; response rate, 33.8%) were from 37 counties. Most were coeducational (91.3%) and had a religious affiliation (83%). Secular schools had more PE lessons, weekly PE min, and smaller class sizes. Most schools met guidelines for class size, but few met national recommendations for weekly PE minutes (13.7%), not permitting substitutions for PE (35.6%), and programs being taught entirely by PE specialists (29.3%).
Private schools, which serve about 5 million US children and adolescents, may be falling short in providing quality PE. School stakeholders should encourage adoption and implementation of policies and practices that abide by professional guidelines and state statutes.
Richard J. Buning and Heather J. Gibson
Utilizing a social worlds perspective, the study examined active-sport-event travel career progression in the sport of cycling. Event travel careers are considered potentially lifelong patterns of travel to participate in events that evolve through stages with distinct behaviors and motivations. Quantitative methods were used to test tenets of an inductively derived model of the active-sport-event travel career for cyclists. An international sample of cyclists were surveyed online; N = 1,452 responded. Using general linear modeling, the results depicted an escalation in motivation related to intellectual, social, mastery competence, giving back, and competition against others with career progression. However, while travel behavior related to preferred events characteristics changed with career progression, preferred characteristics related to destinations and travel style remained relatively stagnant. Implications for destination and event management are discussed.
Susan M. Molstad
Male (N=121) and female (N=135) high school girls’ basketball coaches responded to three forced-choice questions related to gender and role modeling. Both genders said they preferred coaching girls to boys. Male coaches thought female athletes preferred a male coach, female coaches thought they preferred a female coach. Coaches of each gender perceived themselves as equal or better role models than their counterparts. Coaches were then asked to rank order the importance of six coaching qualities previously identified as either expressive or instrumental. First they ranked the qualities in importance as they perceived them, then in the order they thought players would rank them. Coaches differed significantly by gender on the rankings of the qualities, as well as their perceptions of how athletes might rank the same qualities. Implications for modeling and young female athletes are discussed in relation to gender differences in these perceptions.
Joan L. Duda and Harry L. Hom Jr.
This study examined the interrelationships between young athletes’ and parents’ personal and perceived goal orientations in sport. Forty-three boys and 34 girls who were involved in a summer basketball camp completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) with respect to their own dispositional goal perspective in basketball and their perceptions of the goal orientation of the parent who was most involved with their basketball participation. The parents (55 mothers and 21 fathers) responded to the TEOSQ in tenns of their personal goal orientation and their perceptions of the goal orientation held by their child in basketball. Results revealed no significant correlations between children’s and parents’ self-reported task and ego orientation. Children’s goal orientation was significantly related to their views concerning the goal orientation adopted by their patents. The implications of these findings for understanding the socialization of sport goal orientations are discussed.
Melinda A. Solmon, Amelia M. Lee, Donald Belcher, Louis Harrison Jr. and Lori Wells
Beliefs about gender appropriateness and conceptions of ability have been identified as powerful influences on beliefs about competence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of those two factors on competence beliefs in physical activity. Participants completed a survey about the sport of hockey, watched a video of a specific hockey skill, and then responded to questions about the skill. Males expressed more confidence in their ability to learn hockey than females, but females who perceived the activity to be gender neutral were more confident in their ability to learn hockey than females who believed the activity was predominantly for males. Participants’ explanations of their beliefs about gender appropriateness and confidence shed light on how competence beliefs are affected by perceptions of gender appropriateness and conceptions of ability.
Andy Gillham, Keith Hansen and Connor Brady
Coaches are evaluated and judged on a large number of factors (Gillham, Burton, & Gillham, 2013). The purpose of this paper is to describe the views of three different professionals on coach evaluation. An athletic director and a coach from different Canadian colleges and a coaching consultant responded to the same series of questions regarding coach evaluation at the college level. Across the three professionals, the views expressed are more similar than dissimilar, with each professional emphasizing a different piece of the coach evaluation process. The information presented aligns both with coaching standards in the United States and at the International level. Stakeholder views are compared with the coaching science literature and recommendations for athletic directors and coaching scientists are provided.
Sebastian Ludyga, Thomas Gronwald and Kuno Hottenrott
Although men and women are suggested to vary in resistance to fatigue, possible sex difference in its central component have rarely been investigated via electroencephalography (EEG). Therefore, we examined differences in cortical activity between male and female cyclists (n = 26) during cycling exercise. Participants performed an incremental test to derive the anaerobic threshold from the lactate power curve. In addition, cyclists’ cortical activity was recorded with EEG before and during cycling exercise. Whereas women showed higher frontal alpha and beta activity at rest, no sex-specific differences of relative EEG spectral power occurred during cycling at higher intensity. Women and men’s brains respond similarly during submaximal cycling, as both sexes show an inverted U-shaped curve of alpha power. Therefore, sex differences observable at rest vanish after the onset of exercise.