In this study we examined the influences of graduate training, job characteristics, and collegial support on scholarly productivity across gender. A survey was distributed to 425 graduates from 13 major United States research institutions and 117 responded. Publication rate was predicted by the amount of research support from colleagues, the number of colleagues publishing one or more refereed articles per year, and the number of research projects the respondent (as a doctoral student) was involved in with the major professor. Differences were found in professors’ responses to rejected articles, with females significantly less likely to resubmit a rejected article. Therefore, it appears important to participate in many projects with one’s major professor while in graduate school, affiliate with a productive, supportive faculty, and to rewrite and resubmit rejected articles.
Susan K. Kovar and Virginia Overdorf
Tara K. Scanlan and Michael W. Passer
Identification of factors influencing expectancies of successful performance in competitive youth sports is important to understanding the way in which children perceive and respond to this evaluative achievement situation. Therefore, in this field study involving 10- to 12-year-old female soccer players, intrapersonal factors affecting players' pregame personal performance expectancies were first identified. Soccer ability and self-esteem were found to be related to personal performance expectancies, but competitive trait anxiety was not Second, the impact of game outcome, the previously mentioned intrapersonal variables, and the interaction of game outcome and intrapersonal variables was examined by determining players' postgame team expectancies in a hypothetical rematch with the same opponent. The postgame findings showed that winning players evidenced higher team expectancies than tying and losing players. Moreover, the expectancies of tying players were low and, in fact, similar to those of losers. The results of this study successfully replicated and extended previous findings with young male athletes.
Graham Jones, Austin Swain and Andrew Cale
This study examined changes in, and antecedents of, cognitive anxiety» somatic anxiety» and self-confidence in a sample of male (w=28) and female (»=28) university athletes. Subjects responded to the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990) and six antecedent items during the week preceding an important competition. In the case of cognitive anxiety, males showed no change across time; females showed a progressive increase as the competition neared. Males and females showed the same patterning in somatic anxiety with increases occurring only on the day of competition. Self-confidence scores revealed a reduction in self-confidence as the competition neared in both genders, but there was a greater decrease in females than in males. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that different antecedents predicted cognitive anxiety and self-confidence in males and females. Specifically, significant predictors in the females were associated with personal goals and standards; significant predictors in the males were associated with interpersonal comparison and winning.
Stephanie L. Di Stasi, Erin H. Hartigan and Lynn Snyder-Mackler
Aberrant movement strategies are characteristic of ACL-deficient athletes with recurrent knee instability (non-copers), and may instigate premature or accelerate joint degradation. Biomechanical evaluation of kinematic changes over time may elucidate noncopers’ responses to neuromuscular intervention and ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Forty noncopers were randomized into a perturbation group or a strength training only group. We evaluated the effects of perturbation training, and then gender on knee angle and tibial position during a unilateral standing task before and after ACLR. No statistically significant interactions were found. Before surgery, the strength training only group demonstrated knee angle asymmetry, but 6 months after ACLR, both groups presented with similar knee flexion between limbs. Aberrant and asymmetrical tibial position was found only in females following injury and ACLR. Neither treatment group showed distinct unilateral standing strategies following intervention; however, males and female noncopers appear to respond uniquely to physical therapy and surgery.
The reflections and knowledge development of 7 preservice teachers during a field-based elementary methods course were analyzed and described. Data sources included audiotapes of weekly one-hour reflection sessions, nonparticipant observation of methods course meetings and field experiences, three interviews, and documents. Data were analyzed using a constant comparison method. Changes in the preservice teachers’ knowledge were conceptualized in terms of advanced knowledge acquisition (i.e., relations within their knowledge structures). The preservice teachers (a) made managerial decisions in relation to their effect on the learning environment, (b) planned lesson content in relation to past and future lessons, (c) considered the children’s prior learning and skillfulness in relation to subject matter decisions, and (d) connected their choice of words and actions to the children’s perspectives. The preservice teachers did not, however, develop the ability to respond pedagogically to students during an actual lesson. Linkages between the reflection process and the preservice teachers’ development are drawn.
Henk Erik Meier and Marcel Leinwather
Research conducted here aims to contribute to the ongoing debate about gender differences in sport spectatorship. While media coverage of sports represents a “gendered experience”, recent research has questioned the explanatory value of anatomical sex for understanding differences in sport consumption. Analyses of TV ratings for German national team football presented here are set out to test the idea that women are more likely to constitute an “armchair” or “fair weather” audience. Even though watching national team football is clearly a male domain and the men’s team is much more popular, female and male audiences for the men’s team respond to the same set of product characteristics, which supports the idea that women follow men in their TV sport consumption. Moreover, results point to gender differences in demand for women’s team matches supporting the idea that it matters how gendered sport is. Suggestions for future research and policy are made.
Cindy H.P. Sit, Koenraad J. Lindner and Claudine Sherrill
The purpose was to examine sport participation (excluding physical education classes) of school-aged Chinese children with disabilities attending special schools in Hong Kong. A sample of 237 children, ages 9 to 19, attending 10 special schools in Hong Kong, responded to a sport participation questionnaire in individual interviews. Data were analyzed by gender, two school levels, and five disability types. Results relating to participation frequency and extent indicated that girls were significantly less active than boys. Children with physical disability, visual impairment, and mental disability were less active than children with hearing impairment and maladjustment. Children with different types of disabilities varied in their participation patterns and choices of physical activities as well as their motives for sport participation, nonparticipation, and withdrawal. We concluded that disability type is more related to children’s participation behaviors in sport and physical activities than to gender and school level.
Donna L. Pastore and William G. Meacci
This study examined the process by which female coaches of NCAA Division I, II, and III institutions are recruited, selected, and retained. A total of 501 administrators and coaches of women's teams responded to a questionnaire consisting of 22 employment process statements that elicited (a) the extent to which each process was used, and (b) the importance attached to each process by the subjects. Principal component analyses of the two data sets yielded five factors: Organizational Policies, Candidate's Experience, Informal Recruiting, Formal Recruiting, and Candidate's Credentials. A 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 (Gender × Position × Division × Use of Factors) repeated measures ANOVA showed significant two-way interaction effects for gender, position, and division. Tukey's post hoc analyses indicated that Candidate's Credentials was rated highest by all subgroups. A 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 (Gender × Position × Division × Importance of Factors) repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant two-way interaction effect for division. Tukey's post hoc analyses indicated that respondents rated Candidate's Credentials and Organizational Policies highest.
David Carless and Kitrina Douglas
Through narrative methodology this study explores the processes and consequences of identity development among young elite athletes, with particular reference to the influence of sport culture. We focus on life stories of two elite male athletes, recounting significant moments from their lives analyzed through the lens of narrative theory. Our findings offer insights into three strands of sport psychology literature. First, responding to calls for a cultural sport psychology, our study reveals how elite sport culture shapes psychological processes of identity development. Second, it shows how the origins of a potentially problematic athletic identity are seeded in early sport experiences, shedding light on how athletic identity is developed or resisted. Finally, it extends previous narrative research into the lives of female professional golfers, documenting how comparable processes unfold among male athletes in other sports, deepening understanding of how cultural narratives influence behavior and life choices.
Régis Lobjois, Nicolas Benguigui and Jean Bertsch
This study examined the effect of tennis playing on the coincidence timing (CT) of older adults. Young, younger-old and older-old (20–30, 60–69, and 70–79 years old, respectively) tennis players and nonplayers were asked to synchronize a simple response (pressing a button) with the arrival of a moving stimulus at a target. Results showed that the older tennis players responded with a slight bias similar to that of the young players. Two experiments were conducted to determine whether the elimination of age effects through tennis playing was a result of maintaining basic perceptuomotor and perceptual processes or of some possible compensation strategy. The results revealed that the age-related increase in the visuomotor delay was significantly correlated with CT performance in older nonplayers but not in older tennis players. These results suggest that playing tennis is beneficial to older adults, insofar as they remained as accurate as younger ones despite less efficient perceptuomotor processes. This supports the compensation hypothesis.