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Neil Armstrong, John Balding, Peter Gentle, Joanne Williams and Brian Kirby

The present study examined the relationship between peak V̇O2 and habitual physical activity in 11- to 16-year-old students. The peak V̇O2 of 111 girls and 85 boys was determined using treadmill or cycle ergometry. Habitual physical activity was estimated from minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring over three 12-hr periods during normal school days. Over half of the girls and one third of the boys failed to sustain a single 10-min period with their heart rate at or above 140 bpm. Only one boy sustained a daily 20-minute period with a heart rate at or above 160 bpm. During Saturday monitoring over 90% of the girls and 75% of the boys failed to sustain a single 10-min period with their heart rate at or above 140 bpm, and only one girl and four boys sustained a 20-min period with their heart rate at or above 160 bpm. No significant relationship was detected between peak V̇O2 and heart rate indicators of habitual physical activity. This study suggests that few children have periods of physical activity of sufficient intensity and duration to stress the cardiopulmonary system.

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Rebecca Jane Willcocks, Jon Fulford, Alan Robert Barker, Neil Armstrong and Craig Anthony Williams

The phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery time constant (τ) following exercise provides a measure of mitochondrial oxidative capacity. The purpose of this investigation was to use 2 different protocols to determine τ in adolescent females. 31P-MR spectra were collected during 2 exercise tests in 6 adolescent girls (13.8 ± 0.3 y) and 7 women (23.2 ± 3.4 y). The first test consisted of 23 repeated 4 seconds maximal isometric calf contractions separated by 12-second recovery; PCr recovery between the final 18 contractions was used to calculate τ. The second test was a sustained 20-second maximal contraction; recovery was fitted with an exponential function to measure τ. PCr τ did not significantly differ between groups: (gated exercise: 4 girls: 16 ± 5 s, 7 women: 17 ± 5 s, p; sustained exercise: 6 girls: 19 ± 6 s, 7 women: 19 ± 4 s). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a close agreement between sustained and gated exercise. Both gated and sustained exercise appear feasible in a pediatric population, and offer a noninvasive evaluation of mitochondrial oxidative capacity.

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Pål Haugnes, Per-Øyvind Torvik, Gertjan Ettema, Jan Kocbach and Øyvind Sandbakk

pacing strategy, with the main factor leading to reduction of speed being reduced cycle rate. Based on these findings, we would advise sprint XC skiers to concurrently develop both these capacities, and to employ technical strategies where a high cycle rate can be sustained when fatigue occurs. However

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Sergio Jiménez-Rubio, Archit Navandar, Jesús Rivilla-García and Victor Paredes-Hernández

kicking are among the principal causes of sustaining a hamstring injury in professional soccer. 4 , 6 Previous research suggests that there is an association between an increased risk of injury or reinjury and hip and knee biomechanical anomalies during maximal or submaximal sprinting, 7 or during

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Álvaro Cuñado-González, Aitor Martín-Pintado-Zugasti and Ángel L. Rodríguez-Fernández

and may also explain the different results between studies obtained regarding injury characteristics and associated factors. The volleyball prevalence of injuries in this study is lower than other team sports, such as soccer. 28 – 30 Elite professional European soccer players sustained a mean of 2

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Nathan Maresh and Jennifer Earl-Boehm

contacted and met with the potential participant, explained the nature and purpose of the study, and addressed any arising questions prior to obtaining consent. Participants Two student-athletes from the university’s women’s soccer team met the inclusion criteria for this study: (1) they had sustained an

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Susana Cristina Araújo Póvoas, Peter Krustrup, Carlo Castagna, Pedro Miguel Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Rita Liliana Mendes Pereira and Malte Nejst Larsen

high-intensity performance, several field tests were developed with the aim of evaluating the ability to sustain mainly aerobic exercise for a prolonged time ( 6 , 8 , 9 , 17 , 24 , 38 , 39 ). In this regard, the Yo-Yo tests proved to be feasible, valid, and reliable for determining maximal heart rate

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Birinder Singh B. Cheema, Marissa Lassere, Ronald Shnier and Maria A. Fiatarone Singh

The purpose of this article is to document a rotator cuff tear sustained by an elderly woman performing progressive resistance training (PRT) in a recent randomized controlled clinical trial. The patient was a sedentary 73-y-old Caucasian woman. Investigation revealed an acute, full-thickness tear of the right supraspinatus secondary to performing a shoulder press exercise. Further investigation via MRI revealed degenerative disease of the acromioclavicular joint including lateral downsloping of the acromion and an anteroinferior acromial spur, which would presdispose to impingement. Conservative management was implemented in this case for over 6 months with minimal success. The patient remained functionally limited in virtually all activities of daily living. Given the medical history, health status, physical condition, and age of our patient, it is probable that degenerative changes predisposed the patient to the injury. To our knowledge this is the first published report of an older adult sustaining a rotator cuff tear during PRT.

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Alan B. Stevens, Shannon B. Thiel, Jennifer L. Thorud, Matthew Lee Smith, Doris Howell, Jessica Cargill, Suzanne M. Swierc and Marcia G. Ory

Many initiatives have been developed to facilitate older adults’ engagement in physical activity (PA) and document its benefits. One example is Texercise, a 12-week program with a focus on increasing participants’ self-efficacy. The goal of this paper is to augment the knowledgebase of PA program implementation and dissemination by elucidating the experience of Texercise implementation as perceived by multiple stakeholders. We conducted 28 semistructured stakeholder interviews and categorized the responses into four preset themes: (1) program delivery and advocacy; (2) value/merit of the program; (3) successes/challenges of offering and sustaining the program; and (4) recommendations for enhancing implementation and delivery. We identified emergent subthemes through further analysis. Many perceptions that are broadly applicable to community organizations emerged. Our findings highlight the importance of stakeholder support when embedding PA programs in communities. Furthermore, the findings are crucial to understanding underlying processes that support widespread program dissemination and sustainability.

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Danielle D. Wadsworth, Reita Clanton, Ford Dyke, Sheri J. Brock and Mary E. Rudisill

Mental health is a major concern for higher education and students are starting their college experience with psychological issues or developing mental health problems after enrollment. Because physical activity and exercise have known mental health benefits, the field of kinesiology can facilitate the delivery of physical activity and exercise programs aimed at reducing stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as promote healthy coping mechanisms. The School of Kinesiology at Auburn University has implemented a framework to address mental health on campus and within our community. Our framework consists of coursework, outreach efforts, and establishing key partnerships to facilitate the delivery and sustainability of our programs. Our programs enable individuals to establish self-regulation skills, use a mindfulness-based approach, or participate in yoga, thereby establishing effective and healthy coping mechanisms. This paper discusses the evolution of our framework, as well as barriers and facilitators of implementation and sustainability.