The twofold purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument that assessed teachers’ intentions, attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control to administer fitness tests effectively, and to determine how well the instrument could predict teachers’ intentions and actual behavior based on Ajzen’s (1985, 1991) theory of planned behavior. In the development phase of the study, 104 physical educators completed the pilot version of the survey to refine the instrument. In the prediction of behavior phase of the study, a convenience sample of 195 physical educators completed (a) the Teachers’ Intentions to Administer Physical Fitness Tests Effectively (TIAPFTE) before fitness testing and (b) a behavior self-report after they administered fitness testing. Standard multiple regression analyses showed perceived behavioral control and attitude significantly predicted intention. Furthermore, results showed that attitude significantly predicted teachers’ behavior directly.
Amanda D. Stewart Stanec
This study examined a six-month implementation of the Responsibility Model in a New Zealand secondary school. Data were collected through interviews, observations and student self-assessments. The implementation was found to be successful in developing positive, supportive and well-behaved classes in physical education. The majority of students developed a greater understanding of personal and social responsibility and became more personally and socially responsible in class. For most students, however, this understanding was firmly associated with physical education and they generally showed little understanding of the potential for the transfer of learning to other contexts.
Luis Columna, John T. Foley and Rebecca K. Lytle
The purpose of this study was to analyze both male and female physical education teacher attitudes toward cultural pluralism and diversity. Participants (N = 433) were adapted physical education specialists, physical education generalists, and teacher candidates. The research method was a descriptive cross-sectional survey (Fraenkel & Wallen, 1990). Data were collected using a modified version of the Pluralism and Diversity Attitude Assessment survey (Stanley, 1997). Mann-Whitney U tests showed no significant differences in attitude scores between teachers and teacher candidates. However, women’s attitude scores were significantly higher than men’s. Further Friedman’s ANOVA test showed statistical differences on the survey’s constructs for gender and professional status. Post hoc analysis indicated that the groups scored significantly higher on the construct, Value Cultural Pluralism than Implement Cultural Pluralism. This means teachers generally valued cultural diversity, but struggled to implement culturally responsive pedagogy. In conclusion, physical educators may need better preparation to ensure cultural competence.
Susanne Kobel, Sarah Kettner, Nanette Erkelenz, Dorothea Kesztyüs and Jürgen M. Steinacker
Physical Education (PE) can foster regular physical activity (PA) in children. However, children engage in insufficient moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during PE. This study objectively investigated MVPA of children during a single, compared with double PE-period. In 294 children (7.1 ± 0.7 years) PA was objectively assessed. PE periods were determined and PA was individually calculated. Children spent 8.5 ± 7.3 minutes of each 45 minutes PE lesson in MVPA. Boys were significantly more active than girls (p ≤ .01). All children participated in 135 minutes PE/week, 32.7% were scheduled one double and one single PE-period. Children, with a double PE-period and one single lesson engaged in significantly less MVPA than children, who had three single periods of PE (6.7 ± 6.9 minutes/45 minutes vs. 9.4 ± 7.4 minutes/45 minutes, respectively; p ≤ .01) In conclusion, single periods of PE seem to be more effective in getting primary school children to engage in more MVPA than one double period per week.
Kristin Scrabis-Fletcher, Jennifer Rasmussen and Stephen Silverman
Grounded in social cognitive theory this study examined attitude and perception of competence and their relationship with skill practice in middle school physical education.
Participants (N = 81) were randomly selected from nine teachers’ classes. Two lessons were videotaped and students completed a middle school perception of competence survey (Scrabis-Fletcher & Silverman, 2010), and a physical education attitude survey (Subramaniam & Silverman, 2000). Student practice trials and task time were coded during skill instruction. A series of different analyses were conducted including descriptive, correlational, and multiple regressions to allow for in-depth understanding of the relationship of student practice and the psychosocial variables of perception of competence and attitude, along with the type and amount of practice occurring in class.
Analyses revealed interesting findings about how class time was spent along with a significant correlation for the total number of tasks and appropriate trials per minute and a low correlation between the psychosocial factors and practice variables.
Including more tasks may increase the number of appropriate practice trials. The sociocognitive bidirectional relationship however, is not predictive in nature and needs to be examined more discreetly from the student, contextual, and teacher perspectives.
Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner and Gianpaolo Patelli
The purpose of this study was to estimate the main and interaction effects of grouping forms, student gender and ability level on the pleasure experienced in physical education (PE). The participants included 178 secondary school students (M = 13.17, SD = .81), with 72 students enrolled in a basketball unit and 106 students enrolled in an endurance unit. Seventy-eight students participated in PE in alternating groups (alternating ability-based and mixed ability groups), and 100 students participated in mixed ability classes. Pleasure was assessed using a validated French language 10-item scale. The results indicated a significant main effect of grouping forms on the pleasure experienced in the basketball unit and a small but nonsignificant effect for endurance. The students in the alternating groups felt more pleasure than those in the mixed ability classes. Considering the importance of pleasure in PE, the alternating groups appear to represent a good solution.
Thomas Curran and Martyn Standage
Motivation research is central to understanding why certain students exhibit high levels of behavioral, cognitive, and emotional engagement with learning, and why others lack interest, display boredom, and withdraw effort (i.e., are disaffected). In this review, tenets within self-determination theory (SDT) are used to provide a theoretically-informed account of student engagement and disaffection in the context of school physical education (PE). Our review centers on the proposition within SDT that the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (i.e., for autonomy, competence, and relatedness) provide the energizing basis for optimal motivational functioning and wellness. Teacher strategies and class structures are reviewed in the context of whether they satisfy or frustrate these psychological needs. To amalgamate the reviewed literature, a mediated model depicting a ‘student-teacher dialectical’ framework is presented. Several practitioner recommendations for supporting student engagement in PE are then offered. Lastly, findings of past interventions within the school context are presented and discussed.
Ang Chen, Tan Zhang, Stephanie L. Wells, Ray Schweighardt and Catherine D. Ennis
Based on the value orientation theory, the purpose of this study was to determine the impact of value orientation incongruence between physical education teachers and an externally designed curriculum on student learning in a concept-based fitness-centered physical education curriculum. Physical education teachers (n = 15) with different value orientations taught an externally designed, standards-based fitness/healthful living curriculum to their middle school students (n = 3,827) in 155 sixth, seventh, and eighth grade intact classes. A pre-post assessment design was used to determine whether student fitness/healthful living knowledge gains differed in terms of teachers’ value orientations. An ANOVA on class means of residual-adjusted knowledge gain scores revealed no statistically significant differences based on value orientations. The evidence suggests that teacher value orientation impact may be mediated by curriculum impact. This finding supports the observation that a well-designed physical education curriculum may minimize the impact of teachers’ diverse value orientations on the curriculum implementation and student learning.
Ang Chen and Yubing Wang
This article focuses on the research on interest, especially situational interest, in physical education. Interest has been considered a powerful motivator for children and adolescents. Based on a conceptualization of individual and situational interest, a reasonable size of evidence has been accumulated showing that situational interest motivates students to engage in physical activity. The evidence also shows that situational interest may have little impact on learning achievement. It, however, can be controlled and manipulated by teachers to create a situationally interesting learning environment to enhance engagement. The lack of studies on individual interest and its development has been identified as a void in this line of research. We argue that it is necessary to strengthen the research on individual interest and its interaction with situational interest to fully understand the four-phase theoretical model of interest development in the physical activity domain (Renninger & Hidi, 2016).
Tina J. Hall, Lori K. Hicklin and Karen E. French
To examine the relationship between the South Carolina middle school physical education assessment results and the school characteristics. In addition, the relationship between teacher training attendance and student achievement were determined.
Student performance on four physical education indicators in 63 middle schools (and 116 teachers) were reported to the South Carolina Physical Education Assessment Program. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between school characteristics as predictors of the performance indicator. ANOVAs were conducted to determine the relationship to teacher training and the performance indicators.
Statewide averages of student performance indicated that slightly over 50% of middle school students were rated as competent in all physical education indicators except health-related fitness (31.2%). The variability was high among all indicators. The correlations between the poverty index and the physical education indicators were significant and low. Teachers who attended data collection training sessions scored higher on all performance indicators, particularly health-related fitness knowledge. Teachers who attended professional development had significantly higher scores on motor skills, health-related fitness knowledge, and the overall weighted scores and approached significance on the health-related fitness performance.
This study suggests that teachers and the programs they deliver have a greater impact on student learning than do school characteristics. Teacher training and professional development is warranted. Most compelling is that the results of this study provide a strong argument against the practice of using student scores from other academic content areas to evaluate teacher effectiveness in physical education.