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Kelley D. Henderson, Sarah A. Manspeaker and Zevon Stubblefield

career. While hydration is a known contributing factor for ER, 8 vitamin D has also been theorized to contributed to muscle function and ER. 2 , 14 As this patient had also identified a history of binge eating practices, it is possible that she was not receiving the recommended amounts of vitamin D, or

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Rachel McCormick, Brian Dawson, Marc Sim, Leanne Lester, Carmel Goodman and Peter Peeling

) recently assessed the multivitamin patch in gastric bypass patients. Here, these authors found that patients using the multivitamin patch had twice the frequency of vitamin deficiencies after 12 months, and concluded that the transdermal multivitamins were not as effective as oral vitamin supplements. In

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Michael P. Corcoran, Miriam E. Nelson, Jennifer M. Sacheck, Kieran F. Reid, Dylan Kirn, Roger A. Fielding, Kenneth K.H. Chui and Sara C. Folta

, Teixeira, & Lazaretti-Castro, 2009 ; Tieland, Dirks, et al., 2012 ; Tieland, van de Rest, et al., 2012 ). Stimulation of anabolic factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been noted with postexercise protein and vitamin D supplementation, and therefore may aid in mitigating any age

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Keren Susan Cherian, Ashok Sainoji, Balakrishna Nagalla and Venkata Ramana Yagnambhatt

-specific recommended dietary allowances for Indians ( 48 ), except vitamin D, for which recommendations by the Endocrine Society was used ( 29 ). Energy Availability Energy availability is operationally defined as energy intake minus training or exercise energy expenditure of the athlete. It is represented in terms of

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Claire E. Badenhorst, Katherine E. Black and Wendy J. O’Brien

 g CHO; 25 g Pro; 5,000 UI vitamin D; and 1,000-μg vitamin K Pasiakos et al. ( 2016 ) n  = 40 (37 males and 3 females) Military personnel Placebo: flavor matched, nonnutrient During exercise Increase in IL-6 and hepcidin postexercise for all conditions No differences between dietary treatments for

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David C. Nieman, Courtney L. Capps, Christopher R. Capps, Zack L. Shue and Jennifer E. McBride

-Freeman & Sesso, 2014 ). Of all carotenoids studied in vitro, lycopene is the most effective singlet oxygen scavenger and exhibits quenching rates multiple times greater than beta-carotene and vitamin C ( Shi & Le Maguer, 2000 ). Human trials suggest that tomato carotenoid intake reduces systemic inflammation in

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International Olympic Committee Expert Group on Dietary Supplements in Athletes

Dietary supplements encompass a wide range of products, including essential nutrients (vitamins, minerals, proteins, amino acids, etc.), herbals and botanicals, and specific products with potential for maintenance of health and optimisation of performance. The use of dietary supplements is

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Dariush Sheikholeslami-Vatani, Slahadin Ahmadi and Hassan Faraji

.1 ± 168.3 Fat (g) 74.8 ± 43.6 78.2 ± 49.3 75.3 ± 45.7 Vitamin A (RE) 93.8 ± 28.6 89.3 ± 30.6 94.6 ± 29.8 Vitamin C (mg) 27.6 ± 11.4 28.3 ± 13.6 29.7 ± 15.6 Vitamin E (mg) 16.9 ± 6.9 16.4 ± 6.8 16.6 ± 9.5 EPA (mg) 94.8 ± 19.6 1823.1 ± 22.7* 96.4 ± 22.3 DHA (mg) 126.5 ± 25.8 974.2 ± 29.7* 135.1 ± 26

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Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

; micronutrients (e.g., iron, zinc, and magnesium) are important for competent immune function, as are vitamins A and D. Some nutrients must be provided in the diet, as they cannot be synthesized in mammalian cells ( Calder, 2013 ). Improved techniques such as metabolomics, proteomics, and lipidomics have revealed

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Matthew David Cook and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems

those with a relatively low anthocyanin intake. It has been recently shown that baseline antioxidant status can be a determinant in the effectiveness of supplementing with antioxidants. For example, individuals with a low baseline status of vitamin C ( Paschalis et al., 2016 ) and glutathione