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Jeffrey J. Martin

, opportunities for special-population youths are limited ( Field & Oates, 2001 ; Martin, 2017 ; Willis et al., 2018 ). Moreover, when opportunities exist there are typically more barriers to participation, such as the child’s disability, inaccessible sport facilities (e.g., no ramps), parental fear and worry

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Christina M. Patch, Caterina G. Roman, Terry L. Conway, Ralph B. Taylor, Kavita A. Gavand, Brian E. Saelens, Marc A. Adams, Kelli L. Cain, Jessa K. Engelberg, Lauren Mayes, Scott C. Roesch and James F. Sallis

, lighting, and police patrols); maintenance (upkeep of homes, buildings, landscaping, parks); access control (features that deny access, like locked gates); and territorial reinforcement (barriers, like signage or fencing, that reinforce a sense of ownership). 1 = disagree strongly, 2 = disagree somewhat, 3

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Andrea L. Hergenroeder, Bethany Barone Gibbs, Mary P. Kotlarczyk, Subashan Perera, Robert J. Kowalsky and Jennifer S. Brach

of the individual or group and must consider the use of an assistive device for walking and gait speed. Common barriers to activity monitor usability are the inability to apply the monitor and difficulty accessing the step display. In older adults, the ideal activity monitor is one that is accurate

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Jennifer L. Huberty, Diane Ehlers, Jason Coleman, Yong Gao and Steriani Elavsky

Background:

Ideal approaches to increasing long-term physical activity (PA) adherence in women remain unclear. This study used a longitudinal mixed-methods approach to 1) determine the effectiveness of an 8-month book club intervention for increasing PA participation and self-worth, and reducing barriers at 1-year follow-up; and 2) identify reasons why completers and noncompleters did or did not maintain PA.

Methods:

One year after the cessation of Women Bound to be Active (WBA), completers (participated in posttesting; n = 30) and noncompleters (did not participate in posttesting; n = 22) responded to questionnaires and interviews assessing their body mass index (BMI), current PA participation, barriers, and global self-worth.

Results:

Compared with noncompleters, completers reported decreases in BMI, higher motivation for PA, higher ratio of benefits to barriers, and more consistent PA. Both groups still reported barriers to PA, especially time; however, completers more often reported strategies for overcoming these barriers. Completers more directly discussed the impact of their improved self-worth on their PA participation.

Conclusions:

In the future, a greater focus on time management and self-regulation strategies should be emphasized in PA interventions, specifically those that focus on women. This may help to prevent program and long-term PA attrition.

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Nick Garrett, Philip J. Schluter and Grant Schofield

Background:

A minority of adults in developed countries engage in sufficient physical activity (PA) to achieve health benefits. This study aims to identify modifiable perceived resources and barriers to PA among New Zealand adults.

Methods:

Secondary analysis of a 2003 nationally representative cross-sectional mail survey, stratified by region, age, and ethnicity, and analyzed utilizing ordinal logistic regression.

Results:

Overall, n = 8038 adults responded to the survey, of whom 49% met updated guidelines for sufficient PA. Perceived accessibility of local resources was associated with PA; however, for some resources there was more awareness among individuals whose predominant activity was not commonly associated with that resource (eg, health clubs and walkers). Perceived local environmental barriers demonstrated negative (steep hills, crime, dogs) and positive (unmaintained footpaths) associations. The absence of perceived environmental barriers was strongly associated with increased activity, suggesting the number of barriers may be a critical factor.

Conclusion:

Complex relationships between perceptions of local environments and activity patterns among adults were found. Although complex, these results demonstrate positive associations between awareness of resources and perceived lack of barriers with being sufficiently physically active for health. Therefore, investments in provision and/or promotion of local resources have the potential to enable active healthy communities.

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Mary Ann Devine

College years are an experimental phase in young adulthood and can lay the foundation for lifelong behaviors. One type of behavior developed during these years is the use of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). LTPA experiences of typical college students have been examined, but there is a lack of studies examining the experiences of students with disabilities. The purpose of this inquiry is to understand the experiences of college students with disabilities and their LTPA, with focus on factors that facilitate or create barriers to engagement. Grounded theory was used to understand LTPA with undergraduates with mobility or visual impairments. Results indicated a theme of culture of physical activity and disability as they received a message that engagement in LTPA was “unnecessary” or “heroic,” which altered their LTPA experiences. Barriers to LTPA can be understood through a social relational lens to recognize the multidimensionality of barriers and facilitators to LTPA.

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Bethany Shifflett, Carol Cator and Nancy Megginson

This study was designed to examine adherence to an active lifestyle among individuals with and without physical disabilities. A Likert-type, 32-item survey was developed that contained five factors identified as perceived competence, social support, benefits, health barriers, and facilities barriers. Reliability estimates within factors ranged from .74 to .88. The survey, in its final form, was distributed to 495 individuals enrolled in undergraduate studies. The 203 individuals (141 nondisabled, 62 injured/disabled) who completed the survey constituted the study’s sample (38% male, 62% female). Among nondisabled subjects, the perceived competence and benefits categories were significantly related to adherence. For those with disabilities, the benefits factor appeared important to their adherence to an active lifestyle, followed by facilities and health barriers.

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Helen Hawley-Hague, Maria Horne, Dawn A. Skelton and Chris Todd

Exercise classes provide a range of benefits for older adults, but adherence levels are poor. We know little of instructors’ experiences of delivering exercise classes to older adults. Semistructured interviews, informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), were conducted with instructors (n = 19) delivering multicomponent exercise classes to establish their perspectives on older adults’ uptake and adherence to exercise classes. Analysis revealed ‘barriers’ to uptake related to identity, choice/control, cost, and venue, and ‘solutions’ included providing choice/control, relating exercise to identity, a personal touch, and social support. Barriers to adherence included unrealistic expectations and social influences, and solutions identified were encouraging commitment, creating social cohesion, and an emphasis on achieving outcomes. Older adults’ attitudes were an underlying theme, which related to all barriers and solutions. The instructor plays an important, but not isolated, role in older adults’ uptake and adherence to classes. Instructors’ perspectives help us to further understand how we can design successful exercise classes.

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Monica Lounsbery, Tim Bungum and Nicole Smith

Objectives:

We examined the status of physical activity opportunity in Nevada K-12 public schools. The focus was on determining both prevalence and nature of existing programs as well as school administrators’ perceived barriers to offering physical activity programs.

Methods:

A 15 item questionnaire was used to assess prevalence and nature of programs as well as perceived barriers.

Results:

Nevada school-age children do not have regular access to physical education. Excluding physical education, more than 30% of schools do not provide physical activity programming. Most existing programs are competitive sport related. In addition, as students matriculate through school, fewer program options and opportunities to participate throughout the school day are available. Lack of funds was the most frequently reported perceived barrier to offering physical activity programs.

Conclusions:

Opportunities to be physically active over the course of the school day are limited and as a result, hinder important national objectives for health-related outcomes.

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Barth B. Riley, James H. Rimmer, Edward Wang and William J. Schiller

Access to fitness and recreation facilities is an important issue for people with disabilities. Although policy and legislation have helped to remove various environmental barriers, there remain a substantial number of inaccessible features in fitness and recreation facilities. This article presents an approach for improving the accessibility of fitness and recreation environments that enables participation and input from members of the community, as well as persons with expertise in accessibility. Through a collaboration between facilities, persons with disabilities and accessibility consultants, the approach provides a process of incremental change through readily achievable barrier removal and by providing an information and educational resource concerning barrier removal, disability awareness, and economic and information resources. Technology is incorporated to facilitate accessibility assessment, interaction between various stakeholders, and the creation of an accessibility solutions database. Policy implications of this approach are discussed.