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Veronica A. Mullins, Linda B. Houtkooper, Wanda H. Howell, Scott B. Going and C. Harmon Brown

This study describes the body composition, dietary nutrient intake, dietary practices, and biochemical indices of iron status of elite female American heptathletes during training. Four-day diet records and dietary practice questionnaires were obtained from 19 female heptathletes (26 ± 3 years) during the training season. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were obtained at the lowest phase of the training cycle. These athletes had a low body fat (13.8 ± 2.7%) and high fat-free mass to height ratios (33.0 ± 2.0 kg/m). Average nutrient intakes were > 67% of the reference intakes for all nutrients except vitamin E. Most dietary nutrient densities were higher than NHANES III nutrient densities for women 20–29 years old. More than 50% of the athletes took vitamin supplements and monitored their hydration status. Fifteen of the 17 athletes reported a normal menstrual cycle. Markers of biochemical iron status were all within the normal range. On average, these athletes were lean with high levels of fat free mass, adequate nutrient intakes, and normal biochemical indices of iron status. However, individual data reveals considerable variability within this group.

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Felipe Fossati Reichert, Ana Maria Batista Menezes, Jonathan Charles Kingdom Wells, Ulf Ekelund, Fabiane Machado Rodrigues and Pedro Curi Hallal

Background:

Prospective studies on physical activity (PA), diet, and body composition in adolescents are lacking, particularly outside high-income countries.

Goals:

To describe the methods used to assess these variables in the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort and to discuss the fieldwork challenges faced and alternatives to overcome them.

Methods:

In 2006–07 a subsample of the 1993 Pelotas cohort was revisited. PA was estimated using questionnaires, a combined heart-rate and motion sensor (Acti-Heart), and the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer. Diet was investigated by questionnaire. Total body water was determined by stable isotopes. Thirty individuals had their total energy expenditure assessed by doubly labeled water. All data were collected at participants’ home.

Results:

The logistics of the fieldwork and the difficulties in undertaking the study and alternatives to overcome them are presented. Preliminary analyses show that 511 individuals were traced (response rate = 90.0%). Compliance of both adolescents and their families for the motion sensors and body-composition measurements was excellent.

Conclusions:

The authors conclude that it is feasible to carry out high-quality studies on PA in developing countries. They hope the article will be useful to other researchers interested in carrying out similar studies.

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Ehsan Ghahramanloo, Adrian W. Midgley and David J. Bentley

Background:

There is little information regarding the effects of concurrent training (endurance and resistance training performed in the same overall regimen) on blood lipid profile in sedentary male subjects. This study compared the effects of 3 different 8-wk training programs [endurance training (ET), strength training (ST) and concurrent training (CT)] on blood lipid profile and body composition in untrained young men.

Methods:

A total of 27 subjects were randomly allocated to an ET, ST or CT group which performed either progressive treadmill (ET), free weight (ST) or both the endurance and strength training requirements for 8 weeks.

Results:

High-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein profiles significantly improved in the ET and CT groups (P < .01) but not in the ST group. Triglyceride and total cholesterol profiles significantly improved in all 3 training groups. Total fat mass significantly decreased in the ET and CT groups (P < .001) but not in the ST group, whereas fat free mass significantly increased in the ST and CT groups (P < .01) but not in the ET group.

Conclusions:

These results indicate that CT can be used to simultaneously improve both the serum lipid profile and body composition of previously untrained, apparently health young men.

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James P. Veale, Alan J. Pearce, David Buttifant and John S. Carlson

Purpose:

Body structure and physical development must be addressed when preparing junior athletes for their first season in a senior competition. The aim of this preliminary study was to measure the extent of the assumption that final year junior Australian Football (AF) athletes are at a physical mismatch to their senior counterparts.

Methods:

Twenty-one male participants (17.71 ± 0.27 y) were recruited from one state based elite junior AF competition and forty-one male participants (22.80 ± 4.24 y) were recruited from one club competing in the senior elite Australian Football League (AFL), who were subsequently divided into two groups; professional rookies aged 18-20 y (19.44 ± 0.70 y; n = 18) and professional seniors aged 21+ y (25.43 ± 3.98 y; n = 23). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans of all participants were completed.

Results:

Despite being an average 6.0% and 6.1% lighter in total weight and lean mass respectively, no significant difference was found between the elite junior athletes and their professional AFL rookie counterparts. However, significant differences were demonstrated in comparison with the professional AFL senior athletes (P < .01). Both professional AFL groups demonstrated greater than 0.3 kg total bone mineral content (BMC) than the elite junior athletes (P < .01) and significantly greater segmental BMC and bone mineral density (BMD) results (P < .05).

Conclusion:

While the results identify the differences in body composition of the elite junior athletes, development in a linear fashion is noted, providing useful information for the creation of age appropriate expectations and training programs.

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Alis Bonsignore, David Field, Rebecca Speare, Lianne Dolan, Paul Oh and Daniel Santa Mina

treatment, which include deleterious changes to body composition (eg, bone mineral density, muscular atrophy, increased body fat percentage), physical capacity, fatigue, metabolism (eg, increased blood triglycerides, cholesterol, and impaired glycemic control), psychological well-being, and health

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Simone A. Tomaz, Alessandra Prioreschi, Estelle D. Watson, Joanne A. McVeigh, Dale E. Rae, Rachel A. Jones and Catherine E. Draper

favorable measures of body composition, along with a range of positive psychosocial and health outcomes. 6 Research from high-income countries shows that complying with the PA and SB components of the guidelines is associated with better health and developmental outcomes. 6 – 10 Evidence supporting the

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Alessandra Madia Mantovani, Manoel Carlos Spiguel de Lima, Luis Alberto Gobbo, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque, Marcelo Romanzini, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, Jamile Sanches Codogno and Rômulo Araújo Fernandes

not engaged (Table  2 ). Lean soft tissue was higher in women engaged in sports participation in early life compared with women not engaged ( P -value = .001), but not in men ( P -value = .07). Table 2 Comparison of Body Composition Variables Between Early Sports Participation in Childhood or

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Nathaniel S. Nye, Drew S. Kafer, Cara Olsen, David H. Carnahan and Paul F. Crawford

, fitness level, biomechanics, genetic factors, training progression strategies (or lack thereof), age, gender, tobacco use, footwear, previous history of injury, lumbopelvic core strength/stability, intrinsic foot muscle strength/stability, body composition], it is not surprising that the AUCs are somewhat

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke

obtaining, verifying and interpreting data needed to identify nutrition-related problems, their causes and their significance” ( Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2015 ). A complete assessment should ideally include dietary evaluation, anthropometry and body composition analysis, biochemical testing

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Rodrigo Antunes Lima, Lisbeth Runge Larsen, Anna Bugge and Lars Bo Andersen

in the association between physical fitness and academic performance. However, several recent studies have proposed plausible mechanisms for the association between academic performance and body composition, such as evidence showing that excess adiposity might impair cognitive function and thereby