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Renata M. Bielemann, Marysabel P.T. Silveira, Bárbara H. Lutz, Vanessa I.A. Miranda, Maria Cristina Gonzalez, Soren Brage, Ulf Ekelund and Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi

functional independence and cognition. 10 Physical activity is also recognized as an important lifestyle factor for secondary prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases. 11 PA improves the general health profile among patients with chronic kidney disease, 12 could decrease the incidence of chronic

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Matthew Pearce, David H. Saunders, Peter Allison and Anthony P. Turner

different contexts is unclear, and thus it is uncertain where intervention efforts should be directed. The pattern of activity may be particularly complex during early adolescence, when independence from adults begins to develop, allowing greater access to the outdoor environment. 13 Conversely

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Ellen Freiberger, Elisabeth Rydwik, Astrid Chorus, Erwin Tak, Christophe Delecluse, Federico Schena, Nina Waaler, Bob Laventure and Nico van Meeteren

In an aging society, maintaining function and independence, while coping with limitations and decline, are of utmost importance for both individual health and public health. The importance of physical activity for improved health in older persons is well documented ( Bouchard, Blair, & Haskell

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Kayleigh R. Erickson, Gregory J. Grosicki, Mara Mercado and Bryan L. Riemann

examined for independence (Durbin–Watson test), normality (normal P–P plot), and linearity and homoscedasticity (partial plots), as well as for the presence of outliers (standardized residuals) or influential (centered leverage values) cases. All statistical analyses were conducted with α = .05 and data

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Viviene A. Temple, Dawn L. Lefebvre, Stephanie C. Field, Jeff R. Crane, Beverly Smith and Patti-Jean Naylor

of the EDI refers to children’s physical preparedness for the school day, fine and gross motor skills, energy level throughout the day, and physical independence. It contains 13 items and includes questions about pencil holding, hand preference, washroom independence, energy levels, coordination, and

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Juliana Souza de Oliveira, Catherine Sherrington, Louise Rowling and Anne Tiedemann

, 88%). Examples of exercise-related personal benefits cited by participants were the impact on maintaining well-being, for improving mood and general health, and to slow the aging process, in terms of improved strength, balance, and flexibility. Furthermore, improved self-confidence and independence

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Philip von Rosen and Maria Hagströmer

cancer, are associated with increased health care utilization, comorbidity, high levels of disability, and less independence. 11 , 12 In contrary, time spent in physical activity could improve functional ability and sleep quality, and increase socialization, cognitive function, and self-rated health. 1

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Sid Mitchell, E. Michael Loovis and Stephen A. Butterfield

, Mason, & McCormick, 2008 ). As such, HLM provides an alternative to standard ANOVA applications. Whereas ANOVA is limited by rather rigorous assumptions regarding independence (e.g., nested data structures collected on repeated occasions), HLM is less constrained by the need to meet these assumptions

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Qingru Xu and Andrew C. Billings

some extent, financial independence granted agency to Chinese journalists, especially those serving in less politically sensitive areas such as education and entertainment ( Fu & Lee, 2016 ; MacKinnon, 2008 ). However, many studies have revealed that, as the overseer of press commercialization, the

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Arya M. Sharma, Donna L. Goodwin and Janice Causgrove Dunn

, that the combination of impairment and weight gain poses health concerns, as a vicious cycle can be created whereby restriction in functioning and independence due to weight gain leads to further reductions in activity levels ( Froehlick-Grobe & Lollar, 2011 ). The downward cycle places people with