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Nathaly Gaudreault, Alex Fuentes, Neila Mezghani, Virginie O. Gauthier and Katia Turcot

Context:

Decreased flexibility in muscles and joints of lower extremities is commonly observed in runners. Understanding the effect of decreased flexibility on knee walking kinematics in runners is important because, over time, altered gait patterns can make runners vulnerable to overuse injuries or degenerative pathologies.

Objectives:

To compare hamstring and iliotibial-band (ITB) flexibility and knee kinematics in runners and nonrunners.

Design:

A descriptive, comparative laboratory study.

Setting:

Hamstring and ITB flexibility were measured with the active knee-extension test and the modified Ober test, respectively, in both groups of participants. Three-dimensional (3D) walking kinematic data were then recorded at the knee using a motiontracking system.

Participants:

18 runners and 16 nonrunners.

Main Outcome Measures:

Knee-extension angle (hamstring flexibility) and hip-adduction angle (ITB flexibility). Knee kinematic parameters of interest included knee angle at initial contact, peak knee angles, and knee-angle range in all planes of movement.

Results:

The runners had a significantly less flexible ITB than the nonrunners (hip adduction [−] and adduction [+] angles, 3.1° ± 5.6° vs −6.4° ± 4.5°; P < .001). The runners demonstrated a greater mean tibial external-rotation angle at initial contact (7.3° ± 5.8° vs 2.0° ± 4.0°; P = .01) and a smaller mean peak tibial internal-rotation angle (−1.6° ± 3.0° vs −4.2° ± 3.2°; P = .04) than the nonrunners.

Conclusion:

This study provides new insight into the relationship between muscle flexibility and 3D knee kinematics in runners. This supports the premise that there is an association between muscle flexibility and transverse-plane knee kinematics in this population.

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Sophia Jowett and Geoffrey A. Meek

This study examined the interpersonal athletic relationship of four married coach-athlete dyads. In order to facilitate the examination of this unique relationship, the interpersonal constructs of closeness, co-orientation, and complementarity were integrated into a conceptual-based model. The main purpose of this study was to establish the utility of the constructs in understanding the coach-athlete relationship in married couples. Following in-depth interviews, the responses of the participants were content analyzed. Analysis revealed that the coaches and athletes’ close relationship facilitated the formulation of a cooriented view of relevant and important issues which subsequently affected the way in which cooperative interactions were expressed in training. The relationship-oriented aspects of this unique dyad are discussed in relation to a proposed conceptualization of the coach-athlete relationship, and future directions are presented.

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Alex C. Garn, Nate McCaughtry, Bo Shen, Jeffrey J. Martin and Mariane Fahlman

This study investigated the relationships among four distinct types of social goals, effort, and disruptive behavior in urban physical education. Social responsibility, affiliation, recognition, status goals, along with effort and disruptive behavior in physical education were reported by high school physical education students (N = 314) from three urban schools. Findings from correlation and structural equation modeling analyses revealed that social responsibility goals had a positive relationship with effort and an inverse relationship with disruptive behavior. Social status goals demonstrated a positive relationship with disruptive behavior and no relationship with effort. Social recognition goal results were mixed, as they had positive relationships to both effort and disruptive behavior while social affiliation goals were unrelated to effort or disruptive behavior. Application of these results suggests that physical educators who are able to identify the diverse social motives that underlie students’ goals can maximize learning opportunities by increasing student effort and minimizing disruptive behavior.

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Alan L. Smith

This study tested a model describing the relationships among perceptions of peer relationships, physical self-worth, affective responses toward physical activity, and physical activity motivation. The model was grounded in Harter’s (1978,1981a, 1986,1987) theoretical perspective, proposing that perceptions of peer relationships (i.e., friendship, peer acceptance) would predict physical activity motivation via affect and physical self-worth. Adolescents (N = 418, ages 12–15 years) completed a battery of questionnaires that assessed the study variables. Results of structural equation modeling analyses supported the overall model and most of the hypothesized direct and indirect relationships among variables for both female and male samples. Examination of alternative models suggested that some expected relationships might have been suppressed by a high correlation between the friendship and peer-acceptance constructs. However, alternative models also showed that these constructs independently contribute to predicting motivational variables. The results illustrate the importance of peer relationships to adolescent physical activity motivation.

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Nicholas W. Baumgartner, Anne M. Walk, Caitlyn G. Edwards, Alicia R. Covello, Morgan R. Chojnacki, Ginger E. Reeser, Andrew M. Taylor, Hannah D. Holscher and Naiman A. Khan

received considerable study for its relationship with health behaviors including physical activity. 21 , 23 , 24 Successful performance on attentional inhibition tasks requires dedication of cognitive and perceptual resources to one type of stimulus while attenuating or inhibiting the distraction elicited

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Jo Williams and Susan J. Chinn

Sport industry marketers have long understood the importance of nurturing customer relationships. The new challenge is how best to face the shifts in customer relationship marketing posed by sports organizations and proactive consumers, or “prosumers.” In this article, the elements of the relationship-building process are presented with a focus on communication, interaction, and value, concepts identified in Gronroos’s (2004) relationship-marketing process model. An expanded version of Gronroos’s model is developed to include prosumers and to describe the interactions that occur through social-media exchanges. The value of specific social-media tools and Web 2.0 technologies in helping sport marketers meet their relationship-marketing goals is also discussed. Finally, directions for future research employing the expanded model are suggested.

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Marc-André K. Lafrenière, Sophia Jowett, Robert J. Vallerand, Eric G. Donahue and Ross Lorimer

Vallerand et al. (2003) developed a dualistic model of passion, wherein two types of passion are proposed: harmonious (HP) and obsessive (OP) passion that predict adaptive and less adaptive interpersonal outcomes, respectively. In the present research, we were interested in understanding the role of passion in the quality of coach–athlete relationships. Results of Study 1, conducted with athletes (N = 157), revealed that HP positively predicts a high-quality coach–athlete relationship, whereas OP was largely unrelated to such relationships. Study 2 was conducted with coaches (N = 106) and showed that only HP positively predicted the quality of the coach–athlete relationship. Furthermore, these effects were fully mediated by positive emotions. Finally, the quality of the coach–athlete relationship positively predicted coaches’ subjective well-being. Future research directions are discussed in light of the dualistic model of passion.

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Mark S. Tremblay, J. Wyatt Inman and J. Douglas Willms

This study examined the relationships between children’s reported levels of physical activity, body-mass index, self-esteem, and reading and mathematics scores, while controlling for sex, family structure, and socioeconomic status. The data were collected from the full population of Grade 6 students (N = 6,923) in New Brunswick (NB), Canada in 1996, as part of the Elementary School Climate Study, and the NB Department of Education’s Grade 6 Assessment. Physical activity had a negative relationship with body-mass index. Physical activity had a positive relationship with self-esteem, and a trivial negative relationship with academic achievement. The analysis revealed that both females and males who were more physically active had considerably higher levels of self-esteem. The study suggests that the relationship between physical activity and academic achievement is weak. For some children, physical activity may be indirectly related to enhanced academic performance by improving physical health and self-esteem.

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Lee-Ann Sharp, Ken Hodge and Steve Danish

The purpose of this investigation was to; (a) examine what experienced SPCs perceived to be the necessary components of the sport psychology consulting relationship, and (b) examine individual contributions of the SPC and client to the consulting relationship. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit 10 experienced SPCs (8 male and 2 female, M age = 50.44 years, M years consulting experience = 21.67 years) who held current sport psychology accreditation/certification and who had considerable consulting experience. Following individual interviews, extensive content analysis revealed that the sport psychology consulting relationship was reflective of (a) rapport, (b) respect, (c) trust, (d) a partnership, and (e) a positive impact on the client. Members of the consulting relationship made individual contributions to the relationship; SPCs contributed; (a) honesty, (b) commitment, (c) knowledge and expertise, (d) counseling skills, and (e) professional ethical behavior. With clients contributing; (a) openness to change, (b) honesty, and (c) willingness to work.

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Gashaw Abeza, Norm O’Reilly, Benoit Seguin and Ornella Nzindukiyimana

This study, guided by the relationship marketing theoretical framework, adopted an observational netnography method to investigate professional sport teams’ use of Twitter as a relationship marketing tool. Specifically, the study focused on the three core components of the theoretical framework of relationship marketing: communication, interaction, and value. The observational netnography is based on data gathered from the official Twitter account of 20 professional sport teams in the four major North American leagues over a seven-month period. Results outline seven emergent communication types, six interaction practices, and ten values (co)created by the teams or/and fans. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as impetus for future research, are identified.