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Swee Kheng Tan, Helen E. Parker and Dawne Larkin

We investigated the concurrent validity and discrimination accuracy of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form (BOTMP-SF) and the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) for identifying children with and without motor impairment (MI). From a total of 69 Australian children aged from 5 to 11 years, 26 children were classified with MI according to three criteria, including the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), and were age- and gender-matched with 26 non-MI controls. Performance rankings for the MI/non-MI children on BOTMP-SF and MAND tests were highly correlated (rs = .86); however, only 35% of MI cases were classified alike and 71% of cases were agreed on, overall. Comparing each test with MABC, discrimination statistics revealed MAND was the more accurate discriminator of MI, with higher sensitivity and negative predictive values than the BOTMP-SF. The MAND is a more valid test for the identification of MI in Australian children.

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Michelle Ihmels, Gregory J. Welk, James J. McClain and Jodee Schaben

Background:

Advances in BIA offer practical alternative approaches to assessing body composition in young adolescents and have not been studied for comparability.

Methods:

This study compared reliability and convergent validity of three field tests (2-site skinfold, Omron and Tanita BIA devices) on young adolescents. Reliability was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients, convergent validity was examined by computing correlations among the three estimates, differences in estimated body fat values were evaluated using repeated-measures ANOVA, and classification agreement was computed for achieving FITNESSGRAM ® Healthy Fitness Zone.

Results:

ICC values of all three measures exceeded .97. Correlations ranged from .74 to .81 for males and .79 to .91 for females. Classification agreement values ranged from 82.8% to 92.6%.

Conclusions:

Results suggest general agreement among the selected methods of body composition assessments in both boys and girls with the exception that percent body fat in boys by Tanita BIA is significantly lower than skinfold estimation.

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Anne M. Hollewand, Anouk G. Spijkerman, Henk J.G. Bilo, Nanne Kleefstra, Yvo Kamsma and Kornelis J.J. van Hateren

This study aimed to investigate the validity of the accelerometer-based DynaPort system to detect physical activity in frail, older subjects. Eighteen home-dwelling subjects (Groningen Frailty Indicator [GFI] score ≥ 4, ≥ 75 years) were included. Activities in their home environment were simultaneously observed by two researchers and measured with the DynaPort system during six consecutive hours. Primary outcome measures were the sensitivity and specificity of the DynaPort for locomotion (90% considered as sufficient agreement). Other outcome measures were overall agreement, and sensitivity and specificity for other activities. Sensitivity and specificity for locomotion were 83.3% and 100.0%, respectively. Overall agreement was 74.6%. Sensitivity was sufficient for sitting (94.4%), but not for lying and standing (59.2% and 69.6%, respectively). Specificity was sufficient for lying and standing (100.0% and 93.3%, respectively), but not for sitting (80.7%). In conclusion, the DynaPort system is not a valid method for assessing physical activity in frail, older subjects.

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Edward McAuley and Diane Gill

Interest in the role of self-confidence in sport performance has been high in sport psychology research. A measure to assess general physical self-efficacy has recently been developed, but without application to competitive sport performance. The present study examined the role of general and task-specific self-efficacy in women's intercollegiate gymnastics. It also assessed the reliability and validity of the Physical Self-Efficacy Scale in a competitive sport setting. The Physical Self-Efficacy Scale was found to be a reliable and valid instrument for measuring an individual's general physical self-efficacy in sport. However, the task-specific measures of self-efficacy and the gymnast's prediction of how they would perform proved to be much more powerful variables for predicting actual gymnastic performance. The results are discussed in terms of the relationships between different types of self-efficacy and sport performance and the problems associated with self-efficacy measurement.

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Corneel Vandelanotte, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Renaat Philippaerts, Michael Sjöström and James Sallis

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of a newly developed computerized Dutch version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).

Methods:

Subjects (N = 53) completed the computerized IPAQ at three specified times. Subjects wore a CSA activity monitor during seven full days and simultaneously completed a 7-d physical activity diary. Finally, respondents filled out a paper and pencil IPAQ.

Results:

Intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.60 to 0.83. Correlations for “total physical activity” between the computerized IPAQ and the CSA activity counts were moderate (min: r = 0.38; kcal: r = 0.43). Correlations with the physical activity diary were also moderate (min: r = 0.39; kcal: r = 0.46). Correlations between the computerized and the paper and pencil IPAQ were high (min: r = 0.80; kcal: r = 0.84).

Conclusions:

The computerized Dutch IPAQ is a reliable and reasonably valid physical activity measurement tool for the general adult population.

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Barry S. Mason, James M. Rhodes and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

The purpose of the current study was to determine the validity and reliability of an inertial sensor for assessing speed specific to athletes competing in the wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby, and tennis). A wireless inertial sensor was attached to the axle of a sports wheelchair. Over two separate sessions, the sensor was tested across a range of treadmill speeds reflective of the court sports (1.0 to 6.0 m/s). At each test speed, ten 10-second trials were recorded and were compared with the treadmill (criterion). A further session explored the dynamic validity and reliability of the sensor during a sprinting task on a wheelchair ergometer compared with high-speed video (criterion). During session one, the sensor marginally overestimated speed, whereas during session two these speeds were underestimated slightly. However, systematic bias and absolute random errors never exceeded 0.058 m/s and 0.086 m/s, respectively, across both sessions. The sensor was also shown to be a reliable device with coefficients of variation (% CV) never exceeding 0.9 at any speed. During maximal sprinting, the sensor also provided a valid representation of the peak speeds reached (1.6% CV). Slight random errors in timing led to larger random errors in the detection of deceleration values. The results of this investigation have demonstrated that an inertial sensor developed for sports wheelchair applications provided a valid and reliable assessment of the speeds typically experienced by wheelchair athletes. As such, this device will be a valuable monitoring tool for assessing aspects of linear wheelchair performance.

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Robert H. Wellmon, Dawn T. Gulick, Mark L. Paterson and Colleen N. Gulick

Context:

Smartphones are being used in a variety of practice settings to measure joint range of motion (ROM). A number of factors can affect the validity of the measurements generated. However, there are no studies examining smartphone-based goniometer applications focusing on measurement variability and error arising from the electromechanical properties of the device being used.

Objective:

To examine the concurrent validity and interrater reliability of 2 goniometric mobile applications (Goniometer Records, Goniometer Pro), an inclinometer, and a universal goniometer (UG).

Design:

Nonexperimental, descriptive validation study.

Setting:

University laboratory.

Participants:

3 physical therapists having an average of 25 y of experience.

Main Outcome Measures:

Three standardized angles (acute, right, obtuse) were constructed to replicate the movement of a hinge joint in the human body. Angular changes were measured and compared across 3 raters who used 3 different devices (UG, inclinometer, and 2 goniometric apps installed on 3 different smartphones: Apple iPhone 5, LG Android, and Samsung SIII Android). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine interrater reliability and concurrent validity.

Results:

Interrater reliability for each of the smartphone apps, inclinometer and UG were excellent (ICC = .995–1.000). Concurrent validity was also good (ICC = .998–.999). Based on the Bland-Altman plots, the means of the differences between the devices were low (range = –0.4° to 1.2°).

Conclusions:

This study identifies the error inherent in measurement that is independent of patient factors and due to the smartphone, the installed apps, and examiner skill. Less than 2° of measurement variability was attributable to those factors alone. The data suggest that 3 smartphones with the 2 installed apps are a viable substitute for using a UG or an inclinometer when measuring angular changes that typically occur when examining ROM and demonstrate the capacity of multiple examiners to accurately use smartphone-based goniometers.

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Nicola Relph and Lee Herrington

Context: Clinicians require portable, valid, and cost-effective methods to monitor knee joint-position-sense (JPS) ability. Objective: To examine the criterion-related validity of image-capture JPS measures against an isokinetic-dynamometer (IKD) procedure. Design: Random crossover design providing a comparison of knee JPS measures from image capture and IKD procedures. Participants: 10 healthy participants, 5 female, age 28.0 ± 13.29 y, mass 60.3 ± 9.02 kg, height 1.65 ± 0.07 m, and 5 male, 29.6 ± 10.74 y, mass 73.6 ± 5.86 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.07 m. Main Outcome Measures: The dependent variables were absolute error scores (AES) provided by 2 knee directions (flexion and extension). The independent variables were the method (image capture and IKD). Results: There was no significant difference between clinical and IKD AED into knee-extension data (P = .263, r = 0.55). There was a significant difference between clinical and IKD AES into knee-flexion data (P = .016, r =.70). Conclusions: Analysis of photographic images to assess JPS measurements using knee flexion is valid against IKD techniques. However, photo-analysis measurements provided a lower error score using knee-extension data and thus may provide an optimal environment to produce maximal knee JPS acuity. Therefore, clinicians do not need expensive equipment to collect representative JPS ability.

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Beth M. Myers and Nancy M. Wells

Background:

Gardens are a promising intervention to promote physical activity (PA) and foster health. However, because of the unique characteristics of gardening, no extant tool can capture PA, postures, and motions that take place in a garden.

Methods:

The Physical Activity Research and Assessment tool for Garden Observation (PARAGON) was developed to assess children’s PA levels, tasks, postures, and motions, associations, and interactions while gardening. PARAGON uses momentary time sampling in which a trained observer watches a focal child for 15 seconds and then records behavior for 15 seconds. Sixty-five children (38 girls, 27 boys) at 4 elementary schools in New York State were observed over 8 days. During the observation, children simultaneously wore Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers.

Results:

The overall interrater reliability was 88% agreement, and Ebel was .97. Percent agreement values for activity level (93%), garden tasks (93%), motions (80%), associations (95%), and interactions (91%) also met acceptable criteria. Validity was established by previously validated PA codes and by expected convergent validity with accelerometry.

Conclusions:

PARAGON is a valid and reliable observation tool for assessing children’s PA in the context of gardening.

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Joanna E. Gelinas and Greg Reid

The purpose was to determine whether traditional learn-to-swim progressions, leading to a 10-m front and 10-m back swim, were developmentally valid for children with physical disabilities. Forty children (22 boys, 18 girls) ages 5 to 12 years participated. They were classified according to disability type, functional sport classification, mode of ambulation, and flotation device use. Developmental validity was assessed by testing the children on rhythmic breathing, front float, front glide, front swim, back float, back glide, and back swim. Each skill was deemed successful if the child accomplished all performance criteria of that skill. Atypical progression was evident if a child performed a skill without the ability to perform skills previously listed in that progression. Atypical progression occurred in 32 (80%) children in the front skills and 22 (55%) in the back skills, which indicates that the traditional learn-to-swim progressions for both the 10-m front swim and the 10-m back swim were not developmentally valid for most children with physical disabilities in the conducted research.