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Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

; micronutrients (e.g., iron, zinc, and magnesium) are important for competent immune function, as are vitamins A and D. Some nutrients must be provided in the diet, as they cannot be synthesized in mammalian cells ( Calder, 2013 ). Improved techniques such as metabolomics, proteomics, and lipidomics have revealed

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Sherry Robertson and Margo Mountjoy

<60 mmHg ( Melin et al., 2015 ) • Laboratory assessment of ○ Fasting blood glucose <4 mmol/L ○ Ferritin <25 μg/L ( Petkus et al., 2017 ). ○ Vitamin D ○ Endocrine function (luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol) according to the phase of the cycle ○ Free triiodothyronine <3

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Ronald J. Maughan, Susan M. Shirreffs and Alan Vernec

, including, perhaps, iron and Vitamin D. Where the status is shown to be low by assessment of an appropriate biomarker, supplementation with essential micronutrients may be warranted as an effective short-term measure while an appropriate long-term food-based solution is sought. In the case of vitamin D

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Blair Crewther, Konrad Witek, Paweł Draga, Piotr Zmijewski and Zbigniew Obmiński

was replicated in subfertile men ( D’Aniello et al., 2012 ) and a subgroup of middle-aged men using DAA mixed with nitrate and vitamin D ( Bloomer et al., 2015 ). However, in physically-trained men, taking DAA or a DAA-mixed supplement over 14- or 28-day periods (at 3 g/day or less) when combined with

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Marta C. Erlandson, Shonah B. Runalls, Stefan A. Jackowski, Robert A. Faulkner and Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones

Activity Questionnaire for Adults is calculated as the mean of 7 items (each scored on a 5-point scale) with 5 representing high activity and 1 representing low activity. Calcium and vitamin D intakes were assessed from a 24-hour recall questionnaire. Dietary data were analyzed using the food processor and

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Colleen McConnell, Alyssa McPherson and Kathleen Woolf

, increasing the requirement for micronutrients, such as iron, vitamin D, calcium, B-vitamins, and some antioxidant nutrients ( Thomas et al., 2016 ). Additionally, proper nutrition is important for injury prevention and recovery ( Beelen et al., 2010 ; Thomas et al., 2016 ). Athletes who adhere to evidence

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Laura Pomportes, Jeanick Brisswalter, Arnaud Hays and Karen Davranche

of guarana + 100 mg ginseng + 180 mg vitamins C; Isoxan Actiflash Booster, NHS, Rungis, France), or a placebo (PL: tap water added with orange sugarless syrup). We decided to use the amount of 6% CHO and 200 mg of CAF commonly used in nutrition studies due to its low likelihood of gastrointestinal

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Guro Strøm Solli, Espen Tønnessen and Øyvind Sandbakk

increasing her intake of vitamin D and vitamin C which might have positive immunological effects. 30 , 31 However, although the specific effects of these nutritional strategies are not known, a key factor may be her greater awareness of nutrition in general as a key to better training adaptations and

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Mitchell Naughton, Joanna Miller and Gary J. Slater

upon the tissue. 10 , 39 A number of studies have examined supplementation with antioxidant vitamins C and E to prevent or attenuate EIMD. The findings of the effects of vitamins C and E were equivocal, with observed improvements in soreness following supplementation in some studies, 10 , 40 whereas

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Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

-haul flights, winter competitions, lack of sleep, and LEA. Immunonutrition may help to combat exercise-induced immunodepression, with important considerations including energy availability and adequate intakes of protein, CHO, fatty acids, and micronutrients (iron, zinc, magnesium, and Vitamins A and D