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Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez, David Sanz, Jose Manuel Sarabia and Manuel Moya

Purpose:

To compare the effects of combining high-intensity training (HIT) and sport-specific drill training (MT) versus sportspecific drill training alone (DT) on fitness performance characteristics in young tennis players.

Methods:

Twenty young tennis players (14.8 ± 0.1 y) were assigned to either DT (n = 10) or MT (n = 10) for 8 wk. Tennis drills consisted of two 16- to 22-min on-court exercise sessions separated by 3 min of passive rest, while MT consisted of 1 sport-specific DT session and 1 HIT session, using 16–22 min of runs at intensities (90–95%) related to the velocity obtained in the 30–15 Intermittent Fitness Test (VIFT) separated by 3 min of passive rest. Pre- and posttests included peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), VIFT, speed (20 m, with 5- and 10-m splits), 505 Agility Test, and countermovement jump (CMJ).

Results:

There were significant improvements after the training period in VO2peak (DT 2.4%, ES = moderate; MT 4.2%, ES = large) and VIFT (DT 2.2%, ES = small; MT 6.3%, ES = large) for both DT and MT, with no differences between training protocols. Results also showed a large increase in the 505 Agility Test after MT, while no changes were reported in the other tests (sprint and CMJ), either for MT or DT.

Conclusions:

Even though both training programs resulted in significant improvements in aerobic performance, a mixed program combining tennis drills and runs based on the VIFT led to greater gains and should be considered the preferred training method for improving aerobic power in young athletes.

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Calvin P. Philp, Martin Buchheit, Cecilia M. Kitic, Christopher T. Minson and James W. Fell

Purpose:

To investigate whether a 5-d cycling training block in the heat (35°C) in Australian Rules footballers was superior to exercising at the same relative intensity in cool conditions (15°C) for improving intermittent-running performance in a cool environment (<18°C).

Methods:

Using a parallel-group design, 12 semiprofessional football players performed 5 d of cycling exercise (70% heart-rate reserve [HRR] for 45 min [5 × 50-min sessions in total]) in a hot (HEAT, 35°C ± 1°C, 56% ± 9% RH) or cool environment (COOL, 15°C ± 3°C, 81% ± 10% RH). A 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test to assess intermittent running performance (VIFT) was conducted in a cool environment (17°C ± 2°C, 58 ± 5% RH) before and twice after (1 and 3 d) the intervention.

Results:

There was a likely small increase in VIFT in each group (HEAT, 0.5 ± 0.3 km/h, 1.5 ± 0.8 × smallest worthwhile change [SWC]; COOL, 0.4 ± 0.4 km/h, 1.6 ± 1.2 × SWC) 3 d postintervention, with no difference in change between the groups (0.5% ± 1.9%, 0.4 ± 1.4 × SWC). Cycle power output during the intervention was almost certainly lower in the HEAT group (HEAT 1.8 ± 0.2 W/kg vs COOL 2.5 ± 0.3 W/kg, –21.7 ± 3.2 × SWC, 100/0/0).

Conclusions:

When cardiovascularexercise intensity is matched (ie, 70% HRR) between environmental conditions, there is no additional performance benefit from short-duration moderate-intensity heat exposure (5 × 50 min) for semiprofessional footballers exercising in cool conditions. However, the similar positive adaptations may occur in HEAT with 30% lower mechanical load, which may be of interest for load management during intense training or rehabilitation phases.

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Martin Buchheit, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva, Marc Quod, Thomas Quesnel and Said Ahmaidi

Purpose:

The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of speed/agility (S/A) training with sprint interval training (SIT) on acceleration and repeated sprint ability (RSA) in well-trained male handball players.

Methods:

In addition to their normal training program, players performed either S/A (n = 7) or SIT (n = 7) training for 4 wk. Speed/agility sessions consisted of 3 to 4 series of 4 to 6 exercises (eg, agility drills, standing start and very short sprints, all of <5 s duration); each repetition and series was interspersed with 30 s and 3 min of passive recovery, respectively. Sprint interval training consisted of 3 to 5 repetitions of 30-s all-out shuttle sprints over 40 m, interspersed with 2 min of passive recovery. Pre- and posttests included a countermovement jump (CMJ), 10-m sprint (10m), RSA test and a graded intermittent aerobic test (30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test, VIFT).

Results:

S/A training produced a very likely greater improvement in 10-m sprint (+4.6%, 90% CL 1.2 to 7.8), best (+2.7%, 90% CL 0.1 to 5.2) and mean (+2.2%, 90% CL –0.2 to 4.5) RSA times than SIT (all effect sizes [ES] greater than 0.79). In contrast, SIT resulted in an almost certain greater improvement in VIFT compared with S/A (+5.2%, 90% CL 3.5 to 6.9, with ES = –0.83).

Conclusion:

In well-trained handball players, 4 wk of SIT is likely to have a moderate impact on intermittent endurance capacity only, whereas S/A training is likely to improve acceleration and repeated sprint performance.

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Chewing Gum: Independent and Combined Effects on Endurance Cycling Performance Katherine T. Oberlin-Brown * Rodney Siegel * Andrew E. Kilding * Paul B. Laursen * 3 2016 11 2 164 171 10.1123/ijspp.2015-0133 Reliability of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test in Semiprofessional Soccer Players

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Running Test Under Field Conditions Ville Vesterinen * Ari Nummela * Sami Äyrämö * Tanja Laine * Esa Hynynen * Jussi Mikkola * Keijo Häkkinen * 4 2016 11 3 393 399 10.1123/ijspp.2015-0366 Brief Report The Effect of Body Mass on the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test in Rugby Union Players

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Andrea Nicolò, Marco Montini, Michele Girardi, Francesco Felici, Ilenia Bazzucchi and Massimo Sacchetti

separate occasions over a 2-week period, with visits separated by at least 48 hours. On the first visit, participants completed the 30:15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30:15 IFT ), an incremental test developed for team sports. 18 After having recovered from the 30:15 IFT , participants were familiarized

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Investigation VO 2max Characteristics of Elite Female Soccer Players, 1989–2007 Thomas A. Haugen * Espen Tønnessen * Erlend Hem * Svein Leirstein * Stephen Seiler * 5 2014 9 3 515 521 10.1123/ijspp.2012-0150 Research The 30–15 Intermittent Fitness Test Versus the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test

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Sebastian Kaufmann, Olaf Hoos, Timo Kuehl, Thomas Tietz, Dominik Reim, Kai Fehske, Richard Latzel and Ralph Beneke

shuttle run 6 seem to show limited ecological validity 7 because they do not reflect the intermittent exercise mode. 8 Therefore, intermittent field tests such as the Yo-Yo tests 9 and the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test 10 have been developed. Both the Intermittent Fitness Test and the Yo

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Jonathon J.S. Weakley, Dale B. Read, Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Carlos Ramirez-Lopez, Ben Jones, Cloe Cummins and John A. Sampson

on 6 separate occasions (refer to Figure  1 for study design). The first consisted of baseline physical testing (ie, 40-m sprint and 30-15 intermittent fitness test 20 ), and the second consisted of familiarization of the SSG, which was completed throughout the study. For the SSGs, participants were

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Cédric Leduc, Jason Tee, Mathieu Lacome, Jonathon Weakley, Jeremy Cheradame, Carlos Ramirez and Ben Jones

maximal aerobic speed. Maximal aerobic speed was assessed during the first week of preseason with the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test. 17 The maximal aerobic speed score ranged from 16 to 20.5 km·h −1 for this population. The training schedules as well as the training load are reported in Figure  1