When weight loss (WL) is necessary, athletes are advised to accomplish it gradually, at a rate of 0.5–1 kg/wk. However, it is possible that losing 0.5 kg/wk is better than 1 kg/wk in terms of preserving lean body mass (LBM) and performance. The aim of this study was to compare changes in body composition, strength, and power during a weekly body-weight (BW) loss of 0.7% slow reduction (SR) vs. 1.4% fast reduction (FR). We hypothesized that the faster WL regimen would result in more detrimental effects on both LBM and strength-related performance. Twenty-four athletes were randomized to SR (n = 13, 24 ± 3 yr, 71.9 ± 12.7 kg) or FR (n = 11, 22 ± 5 yr, 74.8 ± 11.7 kg). They followed energy-restricted diets promoting the predetermined weekly WL. All athletes included 4 resistance-training sessions/wk in their usual training regimen. The mean times spent in intervention for SR and FR were 8.5 ± 2.2 and 5.3 ± 0.9 wk, respectively (p < .001). BW, body composition (DEXA), 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) tests, 40-m sprint, and countermovement jump were measured before and after intervention. Energy intake was reduced by 19% ± 2% and 30% ± 4% in SR and FR, respectively (p = .003). BW and fat mass decreased in both SR and FR by 5.6% ± 0.8% and 5.5% ± 0.7% (0.7% ± 0.8% vs. 1.0% ± 0.4%/wk) and 31% ± 3% and 21 ± 4%, respectively. LBM increased in SR by 2.1% ± 0.4% (p < .001), whereas it was unchanged in FR (–0.2% ± 0.7%), with significant differences between groups (p < .01). In conclusion, data from this study suggest that athletes who want to gain LBM and increase 1RM strength during a WL period combined with strength training should aim for a weekly BW loss of 0.7%.
Ina Garthe, Truls Raastad, Per Egil Refsnes, Anu Koivisto and Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen
Rochelle D. Kirwan, Lindsay K. Kordick, Shane McFarland, Denver Lancaster, Kristine Clark and Mary P. Miles
The purpose of this study was to determine the dietary, anthropometric, blood-lipid, and performance patterns of university-level American football players attempting to increase body mass during 8 wk of training.
Three-day diet records, body composition (DEXA scan), blood lipids, and performance measures were collected in redshirt football players (N = 15, age 18.5 ± 0.6 yr) early season and after 8 wk of in-season training.
There was an increase (p < .05) from early-season to postseason testing for reported energy (+45%), carbohydrate (+82%), and protein (+29%) intakes and no change in the intake of fat. Fat intake was 41% of energy at the early-season test and 32% of energy at the postseason test. Increases (p < .05 for all) in performance measures, lean mass (70.5 ± 7.7–71.8 ± 7.7 kg), fat mass (15.9 ± 6.2–17.3 ± 6.8 kg), plasma total cholesterol (193.5 ± 32.4–222.6 ± 40.0 mg/dl), and low-density lipoproteins (LDL; 92.7 ± 32.7–124.5 ± 34.7 mg/dl) were measured. No changes were measured in triglycerides, very-low-density lipoproteins, or high-density lipoproteins.
Increases in strength, power, speed, total body mass, muscle mass, and fat mass were measured. Cholesterol and LDL levels increased during the study to levels associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease. It is possible that this is a temporary phenomenon, but it is cause for concern and an indication that dietary education to promote weight gain in a manner less likely to adversely affect the lipid profile is warranted.
Rebecca M. Dagger, Ian G. Davies, Kelly A. Mackintosh, Genevieve L. Stone, Keith P. George, Stuart J. Fairclough and Lynne M. Boddy
-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans to provide detailed information on body composition. This study reports outcomes from the subsample group who participated in these additional measures rather than the full CHANGE! pragmatic evaluation group. The aim of this analysis was to assess changes in measures of body size and
amount of exercise (predefined and controlled amount of exercise and self-reports); objective measurements of body composition and FFM (e.g., dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DEXA] hydrostatic weighing, magnetic resonance imaging, skinfolds, or four-compartment model); and outcomes showing effects on
Bailey Peck, Timothy Renzi, Hannah Peach, Jane Gaultney and Joseph S. Marino
. *Significant effect of sport ( P < .05). Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry A whole-body and regional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; GE Lunar Primo Prodigy, Madison, WI; enCORE™ 2011 software, version 15) scan was performed to measure percent body fat. 14 Color mapping indicated areas of high and low
Vassiliadis, H Braun, HG Predel, M Thevis 14.30 Longitudinal changes in body fat assessed by DEXA are adequately reflected by skinfold measurements according to ISAK standards SL Danen, IJM Ceelen, KL Jonvik, KJM Paulussen, FC Wardenaar, LJC van Loon, JW van Dijk 14.45 Carbohydrate for Endurance Athletes in
Daniel E. Lidstone, Justin A. Stewart, Reed Gurchiek, Alan R. Needle, Herman van Werkhoven and Jeffrey M. McBride
day. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements and V ˙ O 2 max testing were performed on testing day 1 with the load carriage task performed on testing day 2 at least 48 hours after testing day 1. DEXA Measurements Before DEXA measures, height and mass were determined using a calibrated
Sherry Robertson and Margo Mountjoy
intense training • Include blood and urine tests to assess iron, vitamin D status, and hydration state • Include BMD (measured by DEXA) in athletes with LEA, DE/ED, or amenorrhea • Include RED-S screening as part of the annual PHE • Utilize the RED-S CAT intended for sports medicine professionals to
Meltem Dizdar, Jale Fatma Irdesel, Oguzhan Sıtkı Dizdar and Mine Topsaç
= weight/square of height kg/m 2 ), and duration of OP diagnosis were collected. Patients were also questioned in terms of OP risk factors, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), fracture risk (Fracture Risk Assessment Tool [FRAX]), history and frequency of falls, use of drugs known to increase fall risk
Megan Colletto and Nancy Rodriguez
to the nearest cm using a stadiometer, and body weight was measured in the morning, before breakfast, using a portable digital scale to the nearest 0.1 lb (Health-O-Meter Inc., Model 349KLX, Bridgeview, IL). Body composition was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (DPX