As a measure of progress, the experiences today of women athletes in the state of Ohio are far different from those attending institutions of higher learning just after the passage of Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972. But how different, and how much progress has been made? The purpose of this study was to assess the level of progress made by compiling and analyzing data available through the Equity in Athletics Disclosure reports filed by 61 junior colleges, four year colleges, and universities in the State of Ohio over a four year span of time for the academic years 2002-2006.2 The template for this study was the report completed by the Women’s Law Project examining gender equity in intercollegiate athletics in colleges and universities in Pennsylvania (Cohen, 2005), the first study of its kind. Similar to that effort, this study assesses the success with which intercollegiate athletic programs in Ohio have collectively responded to the mandates of Title IX in areas of participation opportunities and financial allocations in the form of operating budgets, scholarship assistance, recruiting and coaching.3
Ellen J. Staurowsky, Heather Lawrence, Amanda Paule, James Reese, Kristy Falcon, Dawn Marshall and Ginny Wenclawiak
James T. Morton
By Belanger Kelly. Published in 2016 by Syracuse University Press (461 pp., $44.95 ) In Invisible Seasons , Kelly Belanger offers an inside look into the early implementation of Title IX and its effects on a university, its athletic department, and the various stakeholders connected to both
Donald E. Agthe and R. Bruce Billings
A conceptual model was developed to measure the influence of football profits on meeting Title IX gender equity requirements in athletic aid and participation at NCAA Division I-A institutions. Teams in Division I-A of the NCAA play intercollegiate sports at the highest level of competition. Football profits are the largest source of fan based revenue at most Division I-A institutions. An empirical version of the model including football profit, other men's sports profits, conference membership, undergraduate enrollment, endowment, and the existence of the state funding was estimated for 93 institutions. These factors, except undergraduate enrollment and other men's sports profits, significantly influenced meeting the athletic aid standard. Endowment, state funding, and conference membership significantly influenced compliance with participation standard. In addition to the quantitative analysis, responses to an original survey of Division I conference commissioners added a qualitative dimension to this study.
John T. Wolohan and Sharon Mathes
With the increased attention on the issue of sexual harassment in our society, coaches and athletic administrators need to take a more proactive role in eliminating sexual harassment in the locker room. Although in sport, sexual harassment lawsuits have been rare, the number of reported cases of sexual harassment and misconduct among athletic coaches are on the rise. This article examines what constitutes sexual harassment in sport and what behavior of coaches may now be the bases of a lawsuit. The scope of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, and its relevance to charges of sexual harassment in educational institutions will also be discussed. Next, the article reviews the evolution of sexual harassment case law as demonstrated by two cases. Finally, guidelines for avoiding sexual harassment will be reviewed.
This 2-part longitudinal study uses quantitative content analysis of newspapers to investigate gender dynamics in producing news on equality in sports. It analyzes differences in Title IX coverage by reporter gender to determine whether female journalists advocated more aggressively for women’s equality than their male counterparts did. The study’s first part uses content analysis of volume and placement of articles about Title IX, by journalist gender, and discusses the implications of how patterns of volume and placement have changed over time. The second part identifies advocacy and opposition frames used in the conflict over Title IX; applies content analysis of frames used, by journalist gender; and discusses implications of reporting differences and changes over time for equality. Evidence suggests that, first, social control; then a feminist perspective; and, most recently, a postfeminist worldview among female journalists influenced coverage of the law.
Lynda M. Nilges
Utilizing liberal and radical feminist theory, this study critically investigated the lived status of Title IX in one fourth-grade physical education class (n = 21). Does Title IX emancipate female physicality, or does patriarchal gender differentiation continue to exclude females within the gender-integrated physical education setting? Data were collected over 14 weeks of fieldwork using nonparticipant observation, field notes, formal and informal interviews, and document analysis. Data analysis was structured by the indicator-concept model (Strauss, 1987). Results suggest that equal access to a common curriculum may not fully eliminate gender discrimination in physical education. A gender-based “we-they” dichotomy defines physical life in the context studied. This dichotomy was an ideologically driven, patriarchal distinction that largely awarded physical space to boys and situated girls as physically inferior. Feminist pedagogy is discussed as a strategy for extending gender-equitable teaching in physical education beyond the liberal definition of Title IX.
Barbara Barnett and Marie C. Hardin
Since Title IX was enacted in 1972, women’s advocates have considered how the law has affected female participation in sports, and critics have suggested that the law has unfairly denied opportunities to men. Studies have examined how journalists have covered Title IX and its consequences, yet few have looked at how advocacy groups have sought to influence coverage of the law. This textual analysis examines press statements published by the Women’s Sports Foundation from 2004 through 2009 and concludes that the organization used frames of community and transcendence in discussing women’s athletic participation. The foundation characterized community as essential to the support of women’s participation in sports and suggested that participation and achievement in sports were symbolic of women’s accomplishments in the larger society. The foundation also focused on fairness and equality as rationales for equitable distribution of resources and opportunities. Title IX was rarely mentioned in press statements.
Anne C. Russ, Dani M. Moffit and Jamie L. Mansell
Sexual harassment is a sensitive and pervasive topic in higher education. Programs and institutions have the responsibility to protect the students from sexual harassment under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (United States Department of Education Office of Civil Rights, 2011). While much attention has been focused toward on-campus interactions (i.e., professor/student, student/student), many students participate in off-campus fieldwork and internships associated with coursework, where the students are still protected under Title IX. The purpose of this discussion is to define sexual harassment, summarize research regarding sexual harassment in a fieldwork setting, consider how sexual harassment affects students, and identify resources to help programs identify and respond to sexual harassment.