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Elaine M. Murtagh and Marie H. Murphy

The purpose of this study was to (1) determine the physical activity levels of 9–11 year old children, and (2) compare the activity levels of children who commute to school by active and passive modes. 140 children aged 9–11 years (85 boys) were recruited from four urban Irish schools. Mode of commuting was assessed by questionnaire. Step counts were measured for 4 consecutive days. Mean daily step counts for the sample were 14386 ± 5634. Boys were significantly more active than girls (15857 ± 5482 vs. 12113 ± 5127 steps). Eighty-seven children (62.1%) traveled by car, 51 children (36.4%) walked to school, one child traveled by bus and one child cycled. Children who walked or cycled to school had higher daily step counts than those who traveled by passive modes (16118 ± 5757 vs. 13363 ± 5332 steps). Active commuting to school may therefore represent a worthwhile strategy for improving children’s physical activity levels.

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Ka Man Leung and Pak-Kwong Chung

environments), and policy. A growing body of evidence supports associations between walking and physical environments in older adults. The most up-to-date systematic review and meta-analysis ( Cerin et al., 2017 ) analyzed studies on physical–environmental correlates in active travel among older adults

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Dawn C. Mackey, Alexander D. Perkins, Kaitlin Hong Tai, Joanie Sims-Gould and Heather A. McKay

those barriers. They were also encouraged to add new destinations to their personal travel plan after 6 weeks. Participants and activity coach jointly signing off on their personal physical activity and active travel plans. c. Transit training: A single 60-min group transit training workshop was led by

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Melody Oliver, Karl Parker, Karen Witten, Suzanne Mavoa, Hannah M. Badland, Phil Donovan, Moushumi Chaudhury and Robin Kearns

Background:

The study aim was to determine the association between children’s objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and active trips (AT) and independently mobile trips (IM) during out-of-school hours.

Methods:

Children aged 9 to 13 years (n = 254) were recruited from 9 schools in Auckland, New Zealand between 2011 and 2012. Children completed travel diaries and wore accelerometers for 7 days. Parents provided demographic information. Geographic information systems-derived distance to school was calculated. Accelerometer data were extracted for out of school hours only. Percentage of time spent in MVPA (%MVPA), AT, and IM were calculated. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the relationship between daily %MVPA and AT and between daily %MVPA and IM, accounting for age, sex, ethnicity, distance to school, day of the week, and numeric day of data collection.

Results:

A significant positive relationship was observed between %MVPA and both AT and IM. For every unit increase in the daily percentage of trips made that were AT or IM, we found an average increase of 1.28% (95% CI 0.87%, 1.70%) and 1.15% (95% CI 0.71%, 1.59%) time in MVPA, respectively.

Conclusion:

Children’s AT and IM are associated with increased MVPA during out-of-school hours.

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Elisa A. Marques, Andreia Isabel Pizarro, Jorge Mota and Maria Paula Santos

Background:

The exact relation between objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and independent mobility in children has yet to be fully defined. The objective of this study was to determine whether independent mobility is associated with level of MVPA.

Methods:

Data were collected from 9 middle schools in Porto (Portugal) area. A total of 636 children in the 6th grade (340 girls and 296 boys) with a mean age of 11.64 years old participated in the study. PA was measured in 636 participants using an accelerometer. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to assess the odds for belonging to quartiles of MVPA.

Results:

After controlling for age, gender, body mass index, meeting PA recommendations, and participation in structured exercise, the odds of having a higher level of MVPA when children have higher independent mobility increase through the MVPA quartiles.

Conclusions:

A positive associations were found between independent mobility and quartiles of physical activity.

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Chelsea Steel, Carolina Bejarano and Jordan A. Carlson

Purpose: To investigate potential time drift between devices when using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and accelerometers in field-based research. Methods: Six Qstarz BT-Q1000XT GPS trackers, activPAL3 accelerometers, and ActiGraph GT3X+ and GT3X accelerometers were tested over 1–3 waves, each lasting 9–14 days. Once per day an event marker was created on each pair of devices concurrently. The difference in seconds between the time stamps for each event marker were calculated between each pair of GPS and activPAL devices and GPS and ActiGraph devices. Mixed-effects linear regression tested time drift across days and waves and between two rooms/locations (in an inner room vs. on a windowsill in an outer room). Results: The GPS trackers remained within one second of the computer clock across days and waves and between rooms. The activPAL devices drifted an average of 8.38 seconds behind the GPS devices over 14 days (p < .001). The ActiGraph GT3X+ devices drifted an average of 11.67 seconds ahead of the GPS devices over 14 days (p < .001). The ActiGraph GT3X devices drifted an average of 28.83 seconds behind the GPS devices over 9 days (p < .001). Time drift did not differ across waves but did differ between rooms and across devices. Conclusions: Time drift between the GPS and accelerometer models tested was minimal and is unlikely to be problematic when addressing many common research questions. However, studies that require high levels of precision when matching short (e.g., 1-second) time intervals may benefit from consideration of time drift and potential adjustments.

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Sandra A. Ham, Sarah Martin and Harold W. Kohl III

Background:

This report describes changes in the percentage of US students (age 5 to 18 years) who walked or bicycled to school and in the distance that they lived from or traveled to their school in 1969 and 2001 and travel patterns in 2001.

Methods:

Data were from the 1969 National Personal Transportation Survey report on school travel and the 2001 National Household Transportation Survey.

Results:

A smaller percentage of students lived within 1 mile of school in 2001 than in 1969. The percentage of students who walked or biked any distance decreased from 42.0% to 16.2%. Nearly half of students used more than 1 travel mode or went to an additional destination en route between home and school in 2001.

Conclusion:

Multidisciplinary efforts are needed to increase the percentage of students who walk or bike to school, as well as decrease the distances that students travel.

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Richard Larouche, Travis John Saunders, Guy Edward John Faulkner, Rachel Colley and Mark Tremblay

Background:

The impact of active school transport (AST) on daily physical activity (PA) levels, body composition and cardiovascular fitness remains unclear.

Methods:

A systematic review was conducted to examine differences in PA, body composition and cardiovascular fitness between active and passive travelers. The Medline, PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, and ProQuest databases were searched and 10 key informants were consulted. Quality of evidence was assessed with GRADE and with the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool for quantitative studies.

Results:

Sixty-eight different studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies found that active school travelers were more active or that AST interventions lead to increases in PA, and the quality of evidence is moderate. There is conflicting, and therefore very low quality evidence, regarding the associations between AST and body composition indicators, and between walking to/from school and cardiovascular fitness; however, all studies with relevant measures found a positive association between cycling to/from school and cardiovascular fitness; this evidence is of moderate quality.

Conclusion:

These findings suggest that AST should be promoted to increase PA levels in children and adolescents and that cycling to/from school is associated with increased cardiovascular fitness. Intervention studies are needed to increase the quality of evidence.

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André O. Werneck, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Marcelo Romanzini, Enio R.V. Ronque, Edilson S. Cyrino, Luís B. Sardinha and Danilo R. Silva

/wk; and active: ≥300 min/wk), (2) active traveling to school (inactive: <5 d of active travel to school and active: ≥5 d of active travel to school per week), (3) PE classes (first category: no PE classes; second category: 1 PE class per week; third category: 2 PE classes per week; and fourth category: ≥3

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Kelly R. Evenson, Semra A. Aytur, Sara B. Satinsky, Zachary Y. Kerr and Daniel A. Rodríguez

Background:

We surveyed North Carolina (NC) municipalities to document the presence of municipal walking- and bicycling-related projects, programs, and policies; to describe whether prevalence of these elements differed if recommended in a plan; and to characterize differences between urban and rural municipalities.

Methods:

We surveyed all municipalities with ≥ 5000 persons (n = 121) and sampled municipalities with < 5000 persons (216/420), with a response rate of 54% (183/337). Responses were weighted to account for the sampling design.

Results:

From a list provided, staff reported on their municipality’s use of walking- and bicycling-related elements (8 infrastructure projects, 9 programs, and 14 policies). The most commonly reported were projects on sidewalks (53%), streetscape improvements (51%), bicycle/walking paths (40%); programs for cultural/recreational/health (25%), general promotional activities (24%), Safe Routes to School (24%), and law enforcement (24%); and policies on maintenance (64%), new facility construction (57%), and restricted automobile speed or access (45%). Nearly all projects, programs, or policies reported were more likely if included in a plan and more prevalent in urban than rural municipalities.

Conclusion:

These results provide cross-sectional support that plans facilitate the implementation of walking and bicycling elements, and that rural municipalities plan and implement these elements less often than urban municipalities.