This case study illustrates the complexity of decision making in public organizations, specifically highlighting the public health concern of drowning disparities in the United States. Using escalation of commitment theory, students must consider various factors in evaluating the overextended commitments of a local government in a complicated sociopolitical environment and with vital public needs that must be addressed through a local parks and recreation department. Facing a reduction in allocated resources, the department director, Claire Meeks, is tasked with determining which programs will receive higher priority despite the varied feedback from the management staff. To ensure students are provided a realistic scenario, this case offers a combination of fictional and real-life events from Splash Mid-South, an innovative swimming program in Memphis, Tennessee. Students must critically evaluate not only the merits of the swimming program, but the other sport, recreation, and parks programs that also merit an equitable share of the limited resources. Therefore, students are placed in a decision-making role that is common to managers of both public and private organizations. This case study is appropriate for both undergraduate and graduate sport management courses, with specific application to strategic management, organizational behavior, and recreation or leisure topics.
Brennan K. Berg, Michael Hutchinson and Carol C. Irwin
Jennifer E. Bruening, Rachel M. Madsen, Justin M. Evanovich and Rhema D. Fuller
Service learning and civic engagement have taken on both renewed and increased importance in sport management (Chalip, 2006; Frisby, 2005; Inglis, 2007). The following manuscript represents data collected from 10 offerings of a Sport Management Service Learning course. Ninety-one of the 131 students consented to the use of selected journals, online discussions, and group papers. Analysis was organized around the following a priori themes and subthemes that emerged from the literature: discovery (the increased knowledge of different cultures, reduction of negative stereotypes, and increased self knowledge), integration (the reward of helping others, feeling like you can make a difference, working with others, and connecting to the community), and application (leadership skills and the emotional power of service learning helps students connect intellectually with coursework) (Boyer, 1990; Eyler & Giles, 1999). Subthemes for discovery also emerged from the data and included: knowledge of classmates’ cultures, future plans and being viewed as an expert. A discussion of the findings and recommendations for future research on and application of service learning as a sport management pedagogy follows the results.
Michael J. Diacin
). Verner, Keyser, and Morrow ( 2005 ) identified two basic categories of experiential learning: discrete and nondiscrete. Discrete activities were identified as those that are self-contained, such as internships and service learning experiences. Nondiscrete activities were identified as components of a
Michael Olejniczak and Thomas J. Aicher
The sponsorship landscape has become increasingly cluttered, making it difficult for brands to stand out amongst ubiquitous sponsors. The National Football League (NFL) and the NFL Super Bowl have exemplified the marketing opportunities, business potential, and sponsorship challenges present in large-scale sporting events. In this case study, we present a fictitious consumer packaged goods beverage company, Staz, and their sponsorship of the NFL Super Bowl. Through the case study, we outline the objectives Staz is attempting to attain through its partnership with the NFL Super Bowl, as well as the activities they employed at national, local and site specific levels. Throughout the case, we present challenges brought on by Staz’s competitors, shortfalls in Staz’s hospitality activities, and the under-utilization of social media during their Super Bowl sponsorship campaign. The reader’s goal is to recognize the activities Staz executed well, while idealizing solutions for the brand’s less effective activation efforts.
Margaret Keiper, Dylan Williams and Gil Fried
Fraud is a very broad term, but the underlying theme is the intentional act of deception for personal financial gain. This case study highlights three examples of fraud at different levels of sport: youth, collegiate, and professional. Students are provided a broad perspective of financial fraud and are exposed to differing types of criminal activity at each level of sport. Furthermore, the authors provide an understanding of financial fraud, illegal activities related to fraud, and the responsibilities that all sport management professionals have within various positions at each respective level. Finally, this case provides students with an opportunity to suggest solutions and deterrents for dealing with financial fraud at each level. Specifically, the authors provide a rationale for the use of internal controls within an organization to segregate an organization’s financial responsibilities and reduce the risk of financial fraud.
Joanne Williams and Heidi M. Parker
Experiential learning has been widely used to impact student engagement and provide opportunities to apply theory to practice (Bower, 2013). Sport management faculty regularly use experiential learning in event management, sales classes and internships (Charlton, 2007; McKelvey & Southall, 2008). In addition, educators often include leadership development within their student learning outcomes (COSMA, 2014; MacKie, 2014). This study examines the effectiveness of leadership development activities implemented in an experiential event management course. A case study approach was selected to demonstrate in-depth development and analysis of the course and the integration of strengths-based leadership activities. Students completed the StrengthFinder assessment (Rath & Conchie, 2009), the Strengths Awareness Measure (Schreiner, 2004), and the Strengths of Self Efficacy Scale (Tsai et al., 2014). Significant increases in strengths awareness were reported along with generally high self-efficacy scores. Students reported positive perceptions of the experiential learning experience and increased levels of engagement.
Marijke Taks and Laura Misener
In this case, a local sport tourism officer has been asked to prepare a recommendation for Evex City Council regarding which types of events the city should bid for, based on their public policy agenda of enhancing tourism for economic development purposes and stimulating sport participation for residents. A questionnaire, a codebook, and a data set from two events, an international figure skating event and a provincial gymnastics event, are provided to assist in making a decision. The data set includes the spectators’ identification with and motives for attending the events, tourism activities in which they participated, and some sociodemographic variables. Analyses of the data and interpretation of the results should assist the sport tourism officer in providing accurate recommendations to policymakers. Theories and frameworks that underpin this case include public policy schemas; identity, motives, and tourism behavior of event attendees; sport participation outcomes from sport events; leveraging; and event portfolios.
Tiesha Martin, Stacy Warner and Bhibha Das
Many higher education institutions incorporate service-learning programs because of the positive outcomes they produce for students. However, limited research has assessed the outcomes of service-learning for students working with older adults in a sport setting. Using a discourse analysis approach, this study examined the outcomes of volunteering with the Greenville-Pitt County Senior Games for 55 students enrolled in a physical activity and aging course. The results revealed that students’ perceptions about older adults’ Physical Abilities and Competitiveness and their view of Sport as a Social Event changed as a result of the service-learning experience. Students also cited Humanizing the Older Adult Experience and Learning by Doing as positive outcomes of the experience. The research findings suggest that service-learning with older adults in a sport setting can help better prepare students to serve the aging population. The implications and opportunities for Sport Management instructors are highlighted.
Elizabeth A. Wanless, Ryan M. Brewer, James E. Johnson and Lawrence W. Judge
To prepare students for employment in sport, many sport management programs involve students in revenue generation activities, such as ticket or sponsorship sales. Literature evaluating student perceptions of this specific type of experiential learning remains sparse. This constructivist qualitative study evaluated student perceptions of learning from two courses containing experiential revenue generation projects. Data were gathered via structured-question electronic survey. Fifty-one of 60 students participated. Results generally supported previous research conclusions; conducting experiential learning projects increases skill and professional development and offers a realistic career preview but demands significant time commitment. Important contradictions, however, were present in comparison with past literature. The unique nature of sales-based projects involving students in ticket sales and sponsorship sales served as a platform for students to develop critically important interpersonal skills. This benefit was not identified in studies evaluating experiential learning opportunities that did not contain a sales-based component.
Jennifer Bruening, Rhema D. Fuller, Raymond J. Cotrufo, Rachel M. Madsen, Justin Evanovich and Devon E. Wilson-Hill
Allport’s (1954) intergroup contact hypothesis states that interactions with members of an out-group, particularly of a different racial and/or ethnic group, are effective in changing attitudes about diversity (Allport, 1954; Pettigrew, 1998). In this study, the intergroup contact hypothesis was applied to the design of a sport management course. The classroom component focused the role of sport in education, health, and leadership development, and the application was structured sport and physical activity programming with school-age children at several urban sites. Data were gathered from 91 college students over 3 years about course-related experiences and how the students’ backgrounds influenced their social identities and understanding of out-group members. Results showed that intergroup contact effectively assisted in developing understanding and cooperation and reducing negative attitudes between groups. The participants received diversity education, via intergroup contact, both inside and outside the classroom, which will potentially equip them to take proactive strategies when managing organizational diversity in the sport industry.