The current study examined relationships between sports consumption, values, and media use. In particular, the authors considered relationships between athletic or physical values, perceptions of their portrayal in the entertainment media, sports media use, athletic behaviors (attending events, playing sports), and general media use. A probability survey in a major metropolitan area revealed that sports fandom is related to the importance of being healthy, athletic, and physically fit. These findings suggest that the “passive” leisure allocations commonly ascribed to sports viewing do not displace “active” leisure in the form of actual attendance at sporting events and programs. With regard to sports competition generally, then, the authors see little support for Putnam’s (1995, 2001) metaphor of “bowling alone” (or media-induced malaise) among our sports fans.
David Atkin, Leo W. Jeffres, Jae-Won Lee and Kimberly A. Neuendorf
Richard M. Southall and Mark S. Nagel
Over the past few years the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I women’s basketball tournament has drawn larger crowds, generated increased television ratings, and attracted higher levels of advertising spending. Division I women’s basketball is now viewed as the women’s “revenue” sport. In light of the limited analysis of the organizational conditions that frame college-sport broadcast production, this case study examines the impact of influential actors on the representation process of big-time college-basketball telecasts. Using a mixed-method approach, this article investigates production conditions and processes involved in producing women’s basketball tournament broadcasts, examines the extent to which these broadcasts are consistent with the NCAA’s educational mission, and considers the dominant institutional logic that underpins their reproduction. In so doing, this case study provides a critical examination of women’s basketball tournament broadcasts and how such broadcasts constitute, and are constituted by, choices in television production structures and practices.
B. Colin Cork and Terry Eddy
The purpose of this study was to examine endorsement-related tweets from athletes and determine which characteristics of those tweets could increase the degree of electronic word-of-mouth marketing (eWOM) generated by the message. Previous literature has suggested that the retweet function in Twitter is a form of eWOM. Through the lens of eWOM, the concepts of vividness, interactivity, and congruence are used to understand what tweet characteristics generate the most retweets. A sample of professional-athlete endorsement and sponsored tweets (n = 669) was used and coded based on frameworks adapted from previous studies. Results indicated that the interaction between levels of high vividness and high interactivity generated the highest frequency of retweets. Reported findings could inform athletes and/or brand managers in ways to increase the eWOM of sponsored messages on Twitter.
Anastasios Kaburakis, David A. Pierce, Beth A. Cianfrone and Amanda L. Paule
The NCAA maintains a balance between amateurism and the increasing need for generating revenue. In this balancing act, there are various policy considerations and legal constraints. These legal and policy entanglements bore such class action suits as Keller v. Electronic Arts, National Collegiate Athletic Association, and Collegiate Licensing Company (2009) and O’Bannon v. National Collegiate Athletic Association and Collegiate Licensing Company (2009), which question current revenue generating practices of the NCAA. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of NCAA Division I men’s football and basketball student-athletes toward amateurism and the particular use of student-athletes’ likenesses in college sports video games. Findings point to a lack of clarity and understanding of the agreements and consent forms student-athletes sign annually. Respondents demonstrated confusion in regard to financial aid opportunities, parameters of their scholarships, and whether they endorse commercial products. A majority of respondents expressed the desire to receive additional compensation. Recommendations include clarification and focused rules’ education from compliance and financial aid officers, as well as introducing new amateurism policy, concurrently avoiding costly litigation.
Joris Drayer, Brendan Dwyer and Stephen L. Shapiro
under immense scrutiny. Of primary concern was whether DFS should be considered a form of illegal sport gambling. This debate, centered around the notion of whether the activity should be considered a game of skill or chance, took a major turn in 2015 when McKinsey and Co. published a study of DFS
disc golfers. In addition, it reveals how social variables predict disc-golf-related behaviors on social media and how social media activities are correlated with actual disc-golf play. The study concludes by offering empirically and theoretically grounded suggestions for future research. The Social
Brendan Dwyer, Joris Drayer and Stephen L. Shapiro
Traditional, season-long fantasy sports (TFSs) have been around for nearly 60 years, and although gambling associations have existed since the beginning, there is ample evidence to suggest the activity does not meet the criteria for gambling (cf., Bernard & Eade, 2005 ; Boswell, 2008 ; Drayer
Mikihiro Sato, Jeremy S. Jordan and Daniel C. Funk
The benefits of leisure-time physical activity to health have been acknowledged in the sport management literature (e.g., Berg, Warner, & Das, 2015 ; Eime et al., 2015 ). Physical activity lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and breast and colon cancers and
Heather Kennedy, Bradley J. Baker, Jeremy S. Jordan and Daniel C. Funk
Running as a recreational activity has become a popular leisure pursuit. Surveys indicate approximately 65 million Americans ( Statista, 2017a ), 50 million Europeans ( Breedveld, Scheerder, & Borgers, 2015 ), and 61 million Australians ( Medibank, 2016 ) run regularly. Globally, marathon running
Adam Love and Seungmo Kim
involve activities that are not formally required. Second, although the behaviors may seem minor, the cumulative effect of such behaviors can have a profound impact on organizational effectiveness. In the context of sport, for example, a veteran pitcher on a baseball team may share pitching secrets