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Joaquin U. Gonzales, Dustin M. Grinnell, Martha J. Kalasky and David N. Proctor

The authors examined interindividual and sex-specific variation in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure responses to graded leg-extension exercise in healthy older (60–78 yr) women (n = 21) and men (n = 19). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), body composition, physical activity (accelerometry), and vascular function were measured to identify predictors of exercise BP. Neither VO2max nor activity counts were associated with the rise in SBP or DBP during exercise in men. The strongest predictors of these responses in men were age (SBP: r 2 = .19, p = .05) and peak exercise leg vasodilation (DBP: r 2 = –.21, p < .05). In women, the modest relationship observed between VO2max and exercise BP was abolished after adjusting for central adiposity and activity counts (best predictors, cumulative r 2 = .53, p < .05, for both SBP and DBP). These results suggest that determinants of variation in submaximal exercise BP responses among older adults are sex specific, with daily physical activity influencing these responses in women but not men.

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Susan L. Murphy, Dylan M. Smith and Angela K. Lyden

Background:

In a previous pilot study, the effect of 2 types of activity pacing instruction, general versus tailored, on osteoarthritis symptoms was examined and fatigue improved in the tailored group. Because activity pacing involves instruction on physical activity engagement, we undertook this secondary analysis to examine how pacing instruction affected physical activity patterns.

Methods:

Thirty-two adults with knee or hip osteoarthritis, stratified by age and gender, received either tailored or general activity pacing instruction. All participants wore an accelerometer for 5 days that measured physical activity and allowed for repeated symptom assessment at baseline and 10-week follow-up. Activity patterns were assessed by examining physical activity variability (standard deviation of 5-day average activity counts per minute), and average activity level (5-day average activity counts per minute).

Results:

Physical activity variability decreased in the tailored group and increased in the general group. No significant group changes in average activity from baseline to 10-week follow-up were found.

Conclusion:

In this pilot study, type of activity pacing instruction affected objective physical activity patterns in adults with OA. Tailored activity pacing was more effective at reducing high and low activity bouts corresponding to the message of keeping a steady pace to reduce symptoms.

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Alessandra de Carvalho Bastone, Bruno de Souza Moreira, Renata Alvarenga Vieira, Renata Noce Kirkwood, João Marcos Domingues Dias and Rosângela Corrêa Dias

The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the Human Activity Profile (HAP) by comparing scores with accelerometer data and by objectively testing its cutoff points. This study included 120 older women (age 60–90 years). Average daily time spent in sedentary, moderate, and hard activity; counts; number of steps; and energy expenditure were measured using an accelerometer. Spearman rank order correlations were used to evaluate the correlation between the HAP scores and accelerometer variables. Significant relationships were detected (rho = .47−.75, p < .001), indicating that the HAP estimates physical activity at a group level well; however, scatterplots showed individual errors. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine HAP cutoff points on the basis of physical activity level recommendations, and the cutoff points found were similar to the original HAP cutoff points. The HAP is a useful indicator of physical activity levels in older women.

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Corneel Vandelanotte, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Renaat Philippaerts, Michael Sjöström and James Sallis

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of a newly developed computerized Dutch version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).

Methods:

Subjects (N = 53) completed the computerized IPAQ at three specified times. Subjects wore a CSA activity monitor during seven full days and simultaneously completed a 7-d physical activity diary. Finally, respondents filled out a paper and pencil IPAQ.

Results:

Intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.60 to 0.83. Correlations for “total physical activity” between the computerized IPAQ and the CSA activity counts were moderate (min: r = 0.38; kcal: r = 0.43). Correlations with the physical activity diary were also moderate (min: r = 0.39; kcal: r = 0.46). Correlations between the computerized and the paper and pencil IPAQ were high (min: r = 0.80; kcal: r = 0.84).

Conclusions:

The computerized Dutch IPAQ is a reliable and reasonably valid physical activity measurement tool for the general adult population.

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Robert E. Davis and Paul D. Loprinzi

Objectives:

To examine whether accelerometer-measured physical activity–based reactivity was present in a nationally representative sample of U.S. children (6–11 yrs), adolescents (12–17 yrs), and adults (≥20 yrs).

Methods:

Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 674, 6–85 yrs) were used. Physical activity (PA) was assessed using the ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with PA assessed over 7 days of monitoring. Two PA metrics were assessed, including activity counts per day (CPD) and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA. Evidence of reactivity was defined as a statistically significantly change in either of these 2 PA metrics from day 1 of monitoring to days 2 or 3, with day 1 of monitoring being a Monday.

Results:

Suggestion of reactivity was observed only for the adult population where CPD from days 2 and 3 (297,140.6 ± 7920.3 and 295,812.9 ± 8364.9), respectively, differed significantly from day 1 (309,611.5 ± 9134.9) over the monitoring period (4.0% to 4.5% change). The analysis was conducted 2 additional times with differing start days (Tuesday and Wednesday), and this approach failed to demonstrated a reactive presence.

Conclusion:

In this national sample of U.S. children, adolescents and adults, we did not observe sufficient evidence of accelerometer reactivity.

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Andrea K. Chomistek, Eric J. Shiroma and I-Min Lee

Background:

Physical activity is important for maintaining healthy weight. The time of day when exercise is performed—a highly discretionary aspect of behavior—may impact weight control, but evidence is limited. Thus, we examined the association between the timing of physical activity and obesity risk in women.

Methods:

A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among 7157 Women’s Health Study participants who participated in an ancillary study begun in 2011 that is measuring physical activity using accelerometers. The exposure was percentage of total accelerometer counts accumulated before 12:00 noon and the outcome was obesity.

Results:

Mean (±SD) BMI among participants was 26.1 (±4.9) kg/m2 and 1322 women were obese. The mean activity counts per day was 203,870 (±95,811) of which a mean 47.1% (±11.5%) were recorded in the morning. In multivariable-adjusted models, women who recorded < 39% (lowest quartile) of accelerometer counts before 12:00 noon had a 26% higher odds of being obese, compared with those recording ≥ 54% (highest quartile) of counts before noon (P trend = 0.02).

Conclusions:

These study findings—that women who are less active during morning hours may be at higher risk of obesity—if confirmed can provide a novel strategy to help combat the important health problem of obesity.

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Melissa Raymond, Adele Winter and Anne E. Holland

Background:

Older adults undergoing rehabilitation may have limited mobility, slow gait speeds and low levels of physical activity. Devices used to quantify activity levels in older adults must be able to detect these characteristics.

Objective:

To investigate the validity of the Positional Activity Logger (PAL2) for monitoring position and measuring physical activity in older inpatients (slow stream rehabilitation).

Methods:

Twelve older inpatients (≥65 years) underwent a 1-hour protocol (set times in supine, sitting, standing; stationary and moving). Participants were video-recorded while wearing the PAL2. Time spent in positions and walking (comfortable and fast speeds) were ascertained through video-recording analysis and compared with PAL2 data.

Results:

There was no difference between the PAL2 and video recording for time spent in any position (P-values 0.055 to 0.646). Walking speed and PAL2 count were strongly correlated (Pearson’s r = .913, P < .01). The PAL2 was responsive to within-person changes in gait speed: activity count increased by an average of 52.47 units (95% CI 3.31, 101.63). There was 100% agreement for transitions between lying to sitting and < 1 transition difference between siting to standing.

Conclusion:

The PAL2 is a valid tool for quantifying activity levels, position transitions, and within-person changes in gait speed in older inpatients.

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Alessandra de Carvalho Bastone, Eduardo Ferriolli, Claudine Patricia Teixeira, João Marcos Domingues Dias and Rosângela Corrêa Dias

Background:

Self-reported measures of decreased aerobic fitness and low physical activity are criteria of frailty. However, research assessing aerobic fitness and physical activity levels associated with frailty is limited. Therefore, the aims of this study were to objectively assess the aerobic fitness and the physical activity level of frail and nonfrail elderly, and to examine the association between frailty, aerobic fitness and habitual physical activity.

Methods:

This study included 26 elderly (66 to 86 years), randomly selected. The groups (frail/nonfrail) were age and sex paired. Peak oxygen consumption, maximal walking distance and speed were assessed during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT). Average daily time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and hard activity, counts, number of steps and energy expenditure were measured by accelerometry.

Results:

All variables measured by the ISWT and accelerometer differed significantly between the groups (P < .02). All aerobic fitness and physical activity variables were significantly associated with frailty, independent of the number of chronic health conditions (P < .05).

Conclusions:

Frailty is associated with low peak oxygen consumption and low physical activity level. These findings could guide future clinical trials designed to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic exercises in the prevention and treatment of frailty.

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Daniel P. Hatfield, Virginia R. Chomitz, Kenneth Chui, Jennifer M. Sacheck and Christina D. Economo

Background:

Associations between physical activity (PA) intensity and volume and adolescents’ cardiometabolic health have research, policy, and practice implications. This study compares associations between cardiometabolic risk factors and 1) moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) minutes versus total PA volume (accelerometer-derived total activity counts, TAC) and 2) light PA volume (counts at light intensity, L-TAC) versus moderate-to-vigorous PA volume (counts at moderate-to-vigorous intensity, MV-TAC).

Methods:

2105 adolescents from 2003– 2006 NHANES were included. Independent variables were MVPA minutes, TAC, L-TAC, and MV-TAC. Regression models tested associations between PA variables and continuous metabolic risk index (CMRI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL, insulin, and triglycerides.

Results:

TAC demonstrated a slightly stronger inverse association with CMRI (P = .004) than did MVPA (P = .013). TAC and MVPA were both associated with systolic and diastolic pressure, HDL, and insulin; associations were similar or slightly stronger for TAC. L-TAC and MV-TAC were both associated with CMRI and HDL. Only L-TAC was associated with diastolic pressure. Only MV-TAC was associated with waist circumference, systolic pressure, and insulin.

Conclusions:

Compared with MVPA minutes, TAC demonstrates similar or slightly stronger associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. L-TAC and MV-TAC appear similarly associated with adolescents’ clustered risk but differently associated with individual risk factors.

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Barbara Resnick and Elizabeth Galik

The purpose of this study was to develop and test a measure of physical activity for residents in long-term-care facilities, the Physical Activity Survey in Long-Term Care (PAS-LTC). Sixty-six activities are included in the PAS-LTC: routine physical activity, personal-care activities, structured exercise, recreational activities, caretaking activities, and repetitive activities. The study included 13 residents in a long-term-care facility, most of whom were women (62%), with an average age of 84 years (± 6.0) and an average Mini Mental State Examination score of 6 (± 6.9). There was evidence of interrater reliability of the PAS-LTC with intraclass correlations of .83-.94. There was some evidence of validity of the measure with statistically significant correlations between PAS-LTC recorded during the evening and night shifts and the number of counts of activity per the ActiGraph (r = .60 and r = .57, respectively, p < .05) and the calories estimated (r = .58 and r = .60, respectively, p < .05). The PAS-LTC completed during the day shift and total activity based on the PAS-LTC showed nonsignificant correlations of .40 or greater with the ActiGraph activity counts and calories.