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Shannon L. Delaney, Pablo Monsivais and Donna B. Johnson

Background:

Although more than 1 million US children attend licensed family child care homes, little is known about children’s physical activity in this setting. The purpose of this study is to describe the physical activity of children cared for in child care homes.

Methods:

The study sample included 31 licensed family child care homes in Washington State. Children aged 3 to 6 wore accelerometers while in child care over 5 days. Minutes per hour spent at 4 activity levels were calculated and averaged for all children in the home. Contextual factors such as provider practices, staff training, and home characteristics were assessed using standardized questions.

Results:

Accelerometer data from 144 children were included, with 2 to 11 children monitored per home. The mean minutes of sedentary activity per hour (min/h) was 34.3 (SD = 4.6, range 27.7 to 46.6). For moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) it was 8.8 min/h (SD = 2.6, range 3.6 to 14.1) and for vigorous physical (VPA) activity it was 3.1 min/h (SD = 1.4, range: 0.9 to 7.0).

Conclusions:

The low levels of MVPA and VPA in many homes reinforces the need for additional research to identify policy and practice recommendations that will be most effective in increasing physical activity in this setting.

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Kelly B. Lynch, Charles B. Corbin and Cara L. Sidman

Background:

Current guidelines encourage adults to perform regular physical activity (PA) for optimal health, yet the majority of adults fail to meet the guidelines. One explanation for the difficulty in adding PA to meet recommended levels is an internal PA control center that may result in a compensatory lowering of normal activity levels after “added activity” sessions during the day. The purpose of this study was to test the compensation hypothesis by assessing PA on days of “added” PA among adults.

Methods:

Twenty middle-aged adults recorded daily step counts, in addition to step counts and minutes of basketball play. To test for compensation, step counts on nonbasketball days were compared with steps counts on basketball days (excluding basketball steps).

Results:

No significant differences (F = 0.711) were found between groups. In summary, no compensatory decrease in PA was identified on basketball participation days in this population. When steps in basketball were added, differences (P = .01) in daily step counts existed between basketball days (mean = 15,568) and nonbasketball days (mean = 8,408).

Conclusion:

These results suggest that “added” PA (basketball) does not result in compensatory reductions in typical daily PA on days of “added” activity for the population studied.

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Casey Mace Firebaugh, Simon Moyes, Santosh Jatrana, Anna Rolleston and Ngaire Kerse

 < .001) for those with the lowest grip strength ( Ling et al., 2010 ). The study also assessed physical activity levels and found that lower handgrip strength was also significantly associated ( p  < .001) with lower levels of physical activity ( Ling et al., 2010 ). This concurs with another study

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Oleg Zaslavsky, Yan Su, Eileen Rillamas-Sun, Inthira Roopsawang and Andrea Z. LaCroix

values across the regression models (see Supplementary Figure 1 [available online]). Table 2 Linear Regression Analysis for the Associations of Mutually Adjusted a Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels as Independent Variables With the Overall Fatigue, Energy, and Weariness Outcomes ST, b β c

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Gordon R. Chalmers and Kathleen M. Knutzen

The aim of this study was to determine whether elderly and young adults with similar physical activity levels have similar soleus H-wave maximum/M-wave maximum ratios (H-reflex size) and to determine the relationship between H-reflex size and physical activity level. H-reflex size and physical activity levels were measured in 18 elderly (71 ± 5.7 years) and 20 young (24 ± 4.2) participants. The physical activity levels of the 2 groups were not significantly different. The elderly group had smaller H-rellexes than the young group (elderly. 36% ± 27%; young, 59% ± 17%; p < .05), but the effect of age on H-reflex size was only moderate (omega squared = .19, effect size = .30). There was a weak tendency for higher levels of physical activity to be associated with larger H reflexes (r = .38, p < .05). The findings indicate that soleus H-reflex size is not strongly associated with age or physical activity level.

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Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos Silva, Diego Augusto Santos Silva and Antônio C. Oliveira

Background:

Several studies have shown that physical activity levels have declined in many countries, even with the regular practice of physical education in schools. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of low physical activity levels and associated factors in adolescents enrolled in public high schools in Northeastern Brazil.

Methods:

The sample was composed of 2259 adolescents (62.3% female) aged 16.26 ± 1.1 years. A questionnaire was applied to collect data on physical activity levels, sociodemographic information, tobacco use and alcohol consumption, nutritional status and sedentary behavior. Descriptive statistics and Poisson regression hierarchized model with Prevalence Rate (PR) and P ≤ .05 were used.

Results:

Higher prevalence of low physical activity level (89.1%) was observed. It was observed that 19.6% of individuals did not attend physical education classes regularly. Association was identified between low physical activity level and older girls (P = .02) and not attending physical education classes (P < .01). In males, the group most likely to have that low physical activity level was those whose parents studied until three years (P = .04).

Conclusions:

Low physical activity level was present in most adolescents, more evident in girls. Lifestyle changes are needed, with substitution of sedentary activities for physical and sport activities in schools.

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Leigh M. Vanderloo, Olivia J. M. Martyniuk and Patricia Tucker

Background:

Although preschoolers’ physical activity in center-based childcare has received considerable attention, less is known regarding this group’s activity levels within home-based childcare. This review aimed to explore and synthesize the literature on preschoolers’ physical and sedentary activity levels in home-based childcare. Outdoor playtime was also examined to contribute to the understanding of preschoolers’ activity levels within this particular setting.

Methods:

Nine online databases were searched for peer-reviewed, English-language, primary studies that quantitatively measured physical and sedentary activity levels of preschoolers attending home-based childcare. Studies were excluded if they were nonprimary research, if they lacked a preschool-aged sample, if they did not quantitatively measure physical or sedentary activity, or if they took place in an ineligible environment.

Results:

Seven articles were included in this review; 3 had objective measures of activity levels, and 4 relied on nonobjective measures. Accelerometry data suggest that preschoolers’ average sedentary, moderate-to-vigorous, and total physical activity levels in home-based childcare ranged from 39.5 to 49.6, 1.8 to 9.7, and 10.4 to 33.8 min/hr, respectively. Outdoor playtime appears to be inconsistent in home-based childcare.

Conclusion:

Physical activity among preschoolers attending home-based childcare appears to be relatively low and widely varied. Sedentary time has received less attention in home-based childcare settings. Future research examining activity levels in this unique environment is warranted.

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Settar Koçak, Mary B. Harris, Ayşe Kin İşler and Şeref Çiçek

This study examined physical activity level, sport participation, and parental education level in 333 female and 359 male Turkish junior high school students. Student’s physical activity level, sport participation, and parental education level were determined by a questionnaire with three sections. Independent samples t-test results revealed higher physical activity level and chi-square results indicated higher sport participation for boys when compared with girls. In addition significant negative correlations have been found between MET values and father and mother education for the total sample and for female students; however, negative correlations between MET values and parental education were not significant for boys.

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Elissa Burton, Gill Lewin and Duncan Boldy

The 3 study objectives were to compare the activity levels of older people who had received a restorative home care service with those of people who had received “usual” home care, explore the predictors of physical activity in these 2 groups, and determine whether either group met the minimum recommended activity levels for their age group. A questionnaire was posted to 1,490 clients who had been referred for a home care service between 2006 and 2009. Older people who had received a restorative care service were more active than those who had received usual care (p = .049), but service group did not predict activity levels when other variables were adjusted for in a multiple regression. Younger individuals who were in better physical condition, with good mobility and no diagnosis of depression, were more likely to be active. Investigation of alternatives to the current exercise component of the restorative program is needed.

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Hans van der Mars, Paul Darst, Bill Vogler and Barbara Cusimano

Active supervision patterns of 18 elementary physical educators were studied in relation to physical activity levels of 3 students per teacher (n = 54) during allotted fitness time. Activity level was measured using the system for observing fitness instruction time (SOFIT) activity categories. Results showed that during fitness instruction teachers spent over 90% of the time in peripheral areas of the gym, actively moved about (7.9 sector changes per minute), and provided augmented feedback to students (3.7 total rpm). Students’ most predominant activity levels were very active, standing, and walking, respectively. Students’ moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels averaged 51.9%. Higher percentages of peripheral positioning and demonstrating by teachers correlated with lower amounts of standing still and higher amounts of very active and MVPA behavior. Higher rates of corrective feedback correlated with higher levels of students’ walking and MVPA behavior.