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David J. Ralston

The RAMP system of athletic-injury rehabilitation, its name an acronym representing its component phases, has its foundation in the frequent reassessment of the injury condition. The patient is progressed systematically through a sequence of rehabilitation goals: management of the acute responses to injury, restoration of mobility, and successful completion of performance goals. The RAMP system designates the current highest-priority rehabilitation goal as the primary objective and any other goals as secondary. This ensures that the pursuit of 1 rehabilitation goal is not at the expense of another, more currently relevant goal. The RAMP system provides a systematic format to help less-experienced clinicians progress injured athletes through the phases of recovery from injury. Daily reassessment of an injury allows the rehabilitation plan to be current and appropriate. The goal-based progression of the system ensures maximum resolution of each rehabilitation objective, contributing to athletes’ optimal return to sport or activity

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Simon Walker, Fabrizio Santolamazza, William Kraemer and Keijo Häkkinen

The present study investigated changes in acute serum hormone responses to a resistance exercise bout following a prolonged period of hypertrophic resistance training in young (YM) and older men (OM). Subjects performed a 5 × 10RM leg press exercise protocol before and after 20 weeks of hypertrophic resistance training. In YM, the acute responses in growth hormone were greater compared with before training (p < .05), and cortisol concentration did not increase after training. Endocrine responses in OM were similar before and after training. Greater acute growth hormone responses after training were associated with larger gains in lean mass in the entire subject group (r = .596, p = .019). These findings suggest that, in general, YM demonstrate greater adaptability within the endocrine system compared with OM. However, adaptability in growth hormone response was associated with larger training-induced gains independent of age.

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Marcos R. Kunzler, Emmanuel S. da Rocha, Maarten F. Bobbert, Jacques Duysens and Felipe P. Carpes

Background:

In negotiating stairs, low foot clearance increases the risk of tripping and a fall. Foot clearance may be related to physical fitness, which differs between active and sedentary participants, and be acutely affected by exercise. Impaired stair negotiation could be an acute response to exercise. Here we determined acute changes in foot clearances during stair walking in sedentary (n = 15) and physically active older adults (n = 15) after prolonged exercise.

Methods:

Kinematic data were acquired during negotiation with a 3-steps staircase while participants walked at preferred speed, before and after 30 min walking at preferred speed and using a treadmill. Foot clearances were compared before and after exercise and between the groups.

Results:

Sedentary older adults presented larger (0.5 cm for lead and 2 cm for trail leg) toe clearances in ascent, smaller (0.7 cm) heel clearance in the leading foot in descent, and larger (1 cm) heel clearance in the trailing foot in descent than physically active.

Conclusion:

Sedentary older adults negotiate stairs in a slightly different way than active older adults, and 30 min walking at preferred speed does not affect clearance in stair negotiation.

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Seyed Mohsen Hosseini, Mojtaba Azizi, Ali Samadi, Nahid Talebi, Hannes Gatterer and Martin Burtscher

Purpose: Biochemical markers such as cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) have become indispensable tools for the diagnosis of myocardial injury, providing highly sensitive and specific information about cardiac cell damage and wall stress. The purpose of the present research was to examine the response of cardiac biomarkers to a soccer game in adolescent male soccer players. Methods: Twenty-two trained adolescent male soccer players (14–16 y) were selected in a purposive manner. Blood samples were taken before, immediately after, and 2 and 24 hours after the game for the determination of cTnI and NT-proBNP. Results: Serum concentration of cTnI and NT-proBNP increased immediately and 2 hours after the soccer game (P < .001). After 24 hours, the levels of cTnI dropped but remained above baseline (P = .002), whereas serum NT-proBNP levels returned to baseline. At no time point did any of the values exceed the upper reference value. Conclusions: This is the first study to investigate the acute responses of cardiac biomarkers to a soccer game in adolescent male players. The postgame elevation of cardiac biomarkers and their rapid recovery are indicative of a physiological rather than a pathological response.

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Brian C. Focht, Deborah J. Knapp, Timothy P. Gavin, Thomas D. Raedeke and Robert C. Hickner

This study examined the psychological responses to an acute bout of aerobic exercise in sedentary older and younger adults. Eighteen young (mean age 24 years) and 15 older adults (mean age 64 years) completed a 20-min bout of stationary cycling at 65% of VO2peak. Affective responses were assessed before, during, and immediately after exercise. Participants’ exercise self-efficacy beliefs were assessed before and immediately after exercise. Both groups reported reduced pleasant feeling states and self-efficacy and increased physical exhaustion in response to acute exercise. Older adults also demonstrated a significant decrease in revitalization during and after cycling. Correlation analyses revealed that self-efficacy was related to feelings of fatigue during exercise and postexercise feelings of energy and fatigue. Both groups reported negative shifts in affect and self-efficacy during and 5 min after cycling. Acute affective and self-efficacy responses might influence one’s motivation to adopt and maintain regular physical activity. The relationship between these acute responses and physical activity behavior across the life span warrants future inquiry.

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Ritva S. Taipale, Jussi Mikkola, Ari T. Nummela, Juha Sorvisto, Kai Nyman, Heikki Kyröläinen and Keijo Häkkinen

Purpose:

To examine acute responses of force production and oxygen uptake to combined strength (S) and endurance-running (E) loading sessions in which the order of exercises is reversed (ES vs SE).

Methods:

This crossover study design included recreationally endurance-trained men and women (age 21−45 y; n = 12 men, 10 women) who performed ES and SE loadings. Force production of the lower extremities including countermovement-jump height (CMJ) and maximal isometric strength (MVC) was measured pre-, mid-, and post-ES and -SE, and ground-reaction forces, ground-reaction times, and running economy were measured during E.

Results:

A significant decrease in CMJ was observed after combined ES and SE in men (4.5% ± 7.0% and 6.6% ± 7.7%, respectively) but not in women (0.2% ± 8.5% and 1.4% ± 7.3% in ES and SE). MVC decreased significantly in both men (20.7% ± 6.1% ES and 19.3% ± 9.4% SE) and women (12.4% ± 9.3% ES and 11.6% ± 12.0% SE). Stride length decreased significantly in ES and SE men, but not in women. No changes were observed in ground-reaction times during running in men or women. Performing S before E caused greater (P < .01) oxygen uptake during running in both men and women than if E was performed before S, although heart rate and blood lactate were similar between ES and SE.

Conclusions:

Performing S before E increased oxygen uptake during E, which is explained, in part, by a decrease in MVC in both men and women, decreased CMJ and stride length in men, and/or an increase in postexercise oxygen consumption.

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Anne Delextrat and Semah Kraiem

The physiological load experienced during basketball drills is crucial to understand players’ adaptation to team-sport training and plan physical-conditioning programs.

Purpose:

To compare mean heart-rate (HRmean) responses by playing position during 2-a-side (2v2) and 3-a-side (3v3) ball drills in male junior basketball players and explore the relationship between HRmean and repeated-sprint ability (RSA).

Methods:

Thirtyone players volunteered to participate in this study. On separate occasions, they performed 2v2 and 3v3 ball drills and 6 repetitions of shuttle-run sprints of 20 m (10+10 m), departing every 20 s (RSA). Ball drills took place on the full length but only half the width of the court and were three 4-min bouts separated by 1-min rest periods. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) assessed the effect of the number of players on court (2v2 vs 3v3) and playing position (guards vs forwards vs centers) on HRmean, and a Pearson correlation coefficient evaluated the relation between HRmean and RSA.

Results:

The main results showed greater HRmean in 2v2 than in 3v3 ball drills (P < .001) in all playing positions (90.7% ± 1.3% vs 87.6% ± 3% of HRpeak in guards, 91.3% ± 2.1% vs 87.5% ± 3.7% of HRpeak for forwards, and 88.2% ± 3.5% vs 82.2% ± 5.6% of HRpeak in centers, respectively, for 2v2 and 3v3). In addition, centers were characterized by lower HRmean than guards and forwards in 3v3 only (P = .018).

Conclusions:

These results suggest that 2v2 drills should be preferred to 3v3 drills for aerobic conditioning, in particular for centers. Finally, RSA does not seem to influence players’ acute responses to ball drills.

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Bruno P. Melo, Débora A. Guariglia, Rafael E. Pedro, Dennis A. Bertolini, Solange de Paula Ramos, Sidney B. Peres and Solange M. Franzói de Moraes

, interleukin; nd, not detected; NS, nonsignificant; TNF, tumor necrosis factor. Discussion The aim of this study was to verify the acute responses to a combined training session on salivary cortisol, testosterone, IgA, and cytokines in ILWHA and to compare these responses with an HIV− group. The main outcomes

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Lucas A. Pereira, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Saul Martín-Rodríguez, Ronaldo Kobal, César C.C. Abad, Ademir F.S. Arruda, Aristide Guerriero and Irineu Loturco

fatigue, the acute responses of elite athletes to specific workouts (ie, technical, tactical, or physical training sessions) seem to be one of the most frequently examined topics. For example, Weakley et al 3 reported distinct vertical jump, perceptual, metabolic, and hormonal responses to traditional

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Kieran J. Marston, Belinda M. Brown, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Sabine Bird, Linda K. Wijaya, Shaun Y. M. Teo, Ralph N. Martins and Jeremiah J. Peiffer

–40 continuous min; Jakicic, Winters, Lang, & Wing, 1999 ). It is, therefore, important to explore the acute response in BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF using a high-intensity, yet, ecologically valid, resistance exercise regimen in older adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the acute response in BDNF