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Steven K. Holland and Justin A. Haegele

socialization literature focused on PE teachers ( Cazers & Curtner-Smith, 2017 ; Curtner-Smith, Hastie, & Kinchin, 2008 ; Ensign, Woods, & Kulinna, 2018 ; Flory & McCaughtry, 2014 ), limited research exists regarding the socialization experiences of adapted PE (APE) teachers, a group of educators whose

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Chan Woong Park and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

schools may strategically comply, adjust to the prevailing culture, or attempt to strategically redefine their physical education departments’ practices and perspectives for the worse ( Lawson, 1983a , 1983b ). Little is known about the occupational socialization of adapted physical educators (APEs), the

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Emmanuel Ducrocq, Mark Wilson, Tim J. Smith and Nazanin Derakshan

with a control group, adaptive training improved inhibitory control, which led to enhanced tennis-specific attentional control in a return of serve task, as well as improved tennis performance and visual attention control on a tennis volleying task performed under pressure. Specifically, relative to

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Ken R. Lodewyk

traits have been associated with adaptive outcomes in physical education (PE)-related settings such as physical activity ( Wilson & Dishman, 2015 ), academic achievement ( Ackerman, 2013 ), health ( Jackson, Dimmock, Gucciardi, & Grove, 2011 ), and sport ( Allen, Greenlees, & Jones, 2013 ). Despite these

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Øyvind F. Standal, Tor Erik H. Nyquist and Hanne H. Mong

Adapted physical activity (APA) is a slippery term. It has had various definitions throughout the years ( Reid, 2003 ; Sherrill & DePauw, 1997 ), and currently (as of November 2017), the European Federation of APA states that its definition is an object of discussion and may therefore evolve over

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Amanda Ebert and Donna L. Goodwin

Those who work in the realm of adapted physical activity (APA) are committed to advancing well-being, opportunities for physical activity, and engagement of disabled people 1 in society ( Goodwin & Rossow-Kimball, 2012 ). Professionals in the multidisciplinary field of APA draw from many parent

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens and Edson Filho

professional circus. In the first realizing phase, the participants reflected and achieved their goal of transitioning from sport to circus. Second, the participants had to adapt to their new circus careers. Third, participants thrived in their circus careers. Various psychological skills and stressors

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Loriane Favoretto, Zach Hutchison, Claire M. Mowling and Melissa M. Pangelinan

disparities in both mental ( Einfeld, Ellis, & Emerson, 2011 ; Emerson & Hatton, 2007 ; Platt, Keyes, McLaughlin, & Kaufman, 2019 ) and physical health ( Havercamp & Scott, 2015 ; Rimmer, Yamaki, Lowry, Wang, & Vogel, 2010 ). Participation in adapted sports and physical activities offered as part of school

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Barry Lavay and Peggy Lasko-McCarthey

To successfully conduct quality research, professionals in adapted physical activity (APA) must address a number of unique and challenging issues. These issues include difficulty in acquiring large and homogenous samples; developing valid, reliable, and commercially available test instruments and protocols specific to persons with disabilities; properly training doctoral students to conduct quality research; and maintaining a specific research focus. With regard to these issues, this paper provides the following recommendations: utilize alternative research designs; acquire adequate graduate research training; develop a research focus as an adapted physical activity researcher; and promote an interdisciplinary, collaborative research effort among professionals. Most important, through continued scholarly research adapted physical activity professionals will be able to expand the scientific body of knowledge.

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Geoffrey D. Broadhead

It may be that important happenings during the 1960s and 1970s have helped to bring about the increased amount of published research in adapted physical education (APE), Three major research thrusts were identified which advanced the APE knowledge base: the evaluation of performance, physical education in the least restrictive environment, and effective programming. Specific suggestions were made for improving the quality of future research, and for the dissemination of research results.