consistent findings on the acute positive effects of structured physical exercise on affective well-being (e.g., Reed & Ones, 2006 ). However, many primary studies have historically focused on physical exercise in laboratory settings; the transferability of these findings to PA in the different contexts of
Gorden Sudeck, Stephanie Jeckel and Tanja Schubert
Christopher P. Tomczyk, George Shaver and Tamerah N. Hunt
Clinical Scenario Anxiety is a mental disorder that affects a large portion of the population, especially adolescents and young adults. 1 Anxiety is an emotional response to a stimulus (external or internal) and is characterized by a mixture of behavioral, cognitive, and somatic symptoms. 2 , 3
Paul E. Yeatts, Ronald Davis, Jun Oh and Gwang-Yon Hwang
Physical activity affect refers to a person’s acute exercise-induced psychological and emotional status ( Ekkekakis, 2013 ; Lox, Jackson, Tuholski, Wasley, & Treasure, 2000 ). Components of physical activity affect include positive affect (PA—energetic, enthusiastic, and upbeat), negative affect
Andrew Renfree, Julia West, Mark Corbett, Clare Rhoden and Alan St Clair Gibson
This study examined the determinants of pacing strategy and performance during self-paced maximal exercise.
Eight well-trained cyclists completed two 20-km time trials. Power output, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), positive and negative affect, and iEMG activity of the active musculature were recorded every 0.5 km, confidence in achieving preexercise goals was assessed every 5 km, and blood lactate and pH were measured postexercise. Differences in all parameters were assessed between fastest (FAST) and slowest (SLOW) trials performed.
Mean power output was significantly higher during the initial 90% of FAST, but not the final 10%, and blood lactate concentration was significantly higher and pH significantly lower following FAST. Mean iEMG activity was significantly higher throughout SLOW. Rating of perceived exertion was similar throughout both trials, but participants had significantly more positive affect and less negative affect throughout FAST. Participants grew less confident in their ability to achieve their goals throughout SLOW.
The results suggest that affect may be the primary psychological regulator of pacing strategy and that higher levels of positivity and lower levels of negativity may have been associated with a more aggressive strategy during FAST. Although the exact mechanisms through which affect acts to influence performance are unclear, it may determine the degree of physiological disruption that can be tolerated, or be reflective of peripheral physiological status in relation to the still to be completed exercise task.
Torunn Bodin and Egil W. Martinsen
Physical activity is associated with an antidepressant effect in clinical depression. Self-efficacy is one mechanism proposed to explain this effect. In this study we compared the changes in mood following exercise sessions with high and stable self-efficacy (stationary bike exercise) to exercise sessions with initially low but increasing self-efficacy (martial arts). The experimental design incorporated repeated measures and counter-balancing. Twelve clinically depressed participants completed 45-min exercise sessions consisting of stationary bike use and martial arts. A waiting control condition of 30 minutes was conducted before each exercise session. During martial arts, statistically significant increases in positive affect, reductions in negative affect and state anxiety, and increased self-efficacy were observed. During the stationary bike exercise no statistically significant changes were found. The results indicate that an increase in self-efficacy may be important for mood benefits to occur.
Leighton Jones, Costas I. Karageorghis and Panteleimon Ekkekakis
Theories suggest that external stimuli (e.g., auditory and visual) may be rendered ineffective in modulating attention when exercise intensity is high. We examined the effects of music and parkland video footage on psychological measures during and after stationary cycling at two intensities: 10% of maximal capacity below ventilatory threshold and 5% above. Participants (N = 34) were exposed to four conditions at each intensity: music only, video only, music and video, and control. Analyses revealed main effects of condition and exercise intensity for affective valence and perceived activation (p < .001), state attention (p < .05), and exercise enjoyment (p < .001). The music-only and music-and-video conditions led to the highest valence and enjoyment scores during and after exercise regardless of intensity. Findings indicate that attentional manipulations can exert a salient influence on affect and enjoyment even at intensities slightly above ventilatory threshold.
Carley O’Neill and Shilpa Dogra
Exercise triggers asthma symptoms among adults with exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIBC). This may lead to lower physical activity levels among this population. The purpose of this study was to assess perceived exertion (RPE), perceived breathlessness (RPD), affect (FS), and physical activity enjoyment during and following an acute bout of high intensity interval exercise (HIIE), moderate intensity interval (MIIE) and moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICE) in adults with EIBC.
RPD, RPE, and FS were assessed each minute during the sessions and enjoyment was assessed following each session (n = 11).
RPE was lower during MIIE compared with MICE (P = .006). RPD was lowest during MIIE but was not different between HIIE and MICE. Affect was lower in MICE than HIIE in the last minute of exercise (P = .003) and overall was greatest during the MIIE (P = .022; P = .018). Enjoyment scores were similar between protocols.
Interval exercise is associated with lower ratings of perceived exertion and dyspnea, an increase in in-task affect, and similar physical activity enjoyment when compared with continuous exercise.
Maria Kavussanu, Adrian Willoughby and Christopher Ring
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of moral identity on physiological responses to affective pictures, namely, the startle blink reflex and pain-related evoked potential. Male (n = 48) and female (n = 46) athletes participating in contact team sports were randomly assigned to either a moral identity group or a non-moral identity group and viewed a series of unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant sport-specific pictures. During picture viewing, a noxious electrocutaneous stimulus was delivered as the startle probe and the startle blink and pain-related evoked potential were measured. Upon completion of physiological measures, participants reviewed the pictures and rated them for valence and arousal. ANOVAs revealed that participants in the moral identity group displayed larger startle blinks and smaller pain-related potentials than did those in the non-moral identity group across all picture valence categories. However, the difference in the magnitude of startle blinks between the moral and non-moral identity groups was larger in response to unpleasant than pleasant and neutral pictures. Our findings suggest that moral identity affects physiological responses to sport-specific affective pictures, thereby providing objective evidence for the link between moral identity and emotion in athletes.
Leighton Jones, Jasmin C. Hutchinson and Elizabeth M. Mullin
renewed awareness of the role that affective responses to exercise might have in determining longer term adherence ( Ekkekakis, 2017 ; Ekkekakis & Dafermos, 2012 ). This awareness has, in part, been heightened by a number of studies that have demonstrated a link between acute affective responses to
Shawn M. Arent, Daniel M. Landers and Jennifer L. Etnier
This meta-analysis examined the exercise-mood relationship in older adults. 158 effect sizes (ESs) from 32 studies were grouped intoexperimental-versus-control, gains, and correlational ESs. Each study was coded for moderator variables related to descriptive, design, participant, exercise, and mood-assessment characteristics. Experimental-versus-control ESs for negative (NA) and positive affect (PA) were 0.35 (p < .05) and 0.33 (p > .05), respectively, with an overall ES of 0.34, p < .05. The gains ESs for NA and PA in an exercise group were 0.39 (p < .05) and 0.35 (p < .05), respectively, with an overall ES of 0.38, p < .05. All effects were significantly greater than those for the control groups. Correlational ESs of 0.47 and 0.42 were found for NA and PA. respectively. It was concluded that chronic exercise is associated with improved mood in the elderly. Moderating variables and implications for exercise prescription to improve mood in the elderly are discussed.