This study examined subjective (SWB), psychological (PWB) and social well-being (Social WB) at a global and sport contextual level among ten elite orienteers (6 women and 4 men, median age = 20.4, range 18–30) by employing semistructured interviews. Athletes described SWB as an interplay of satisfaction with life, sport experiences and perceived health combined with experienced enjoyment and happiness in both ordinary life and sport. SWB and PWB interacted, and important psychological functioning among the elite athletes included, among other things, abilities to adopt value-driven behaviors, be part of functional relationships, and to self-regulate one’s autonomy. The ability to organize and combine ordinary life with elite sport, and the use of strategies to protect the self during setbacks was also emphasized. For a comprehensive theoretical understanding of well-being applicable to elite athletes, the need for a holistic view considering both global and sport-specific aspects of WB is discussed.
Carolina Lundqvist and Fredrik Sandin
Roger T. Couture, Wendy Jerome and Jeno Tihanyi
This study examined the effects of association and both internal and external dissociation on the performance, perceived fatigue, and rate of exertion of recreational swimmers during two swimming trials. Before the first swim, 69 participants completed a self-report questionnaire. After the first swim, participants were assigned to one of four groups equated with swim performance times: control, associative, internal dissociative, and external dissociative groups. After completing both the first and second swims, participants completed the Rate of Perceived Exertion, Perceived Fatigue Test, and Subjective Appraisal of Cognitive Strategies. Results showed that the group assigned to the associative strategy swam significantly faster (p < .05) than the control group. No changes were found in perceived fatigue and perceived rating of exertion among the groups between the first and second swim. These findings support the position that associative thinking is an important cognitive strategy in timed performances.
Marios Goudas, Stuart Biddle, Kenneth Fox and Martin Underwood
The purpose of this study was to examine the motivational effects of two different teaching styles in one sport activity. One class of 24 girls was taught track and field for 10 weeks, each lesson being taught with either a direct (practice) or a differentiated (inclusion) teaching style. After each lesson the girls completed self-report measures of intrinsic motivation and goal involvement. On course completion, 8 girls were interviewed to assess their reactions to the course. ANOVA showed that students reporting higher levels of competence, autonomy, and task orientation had higher intrinsic motivation scores throughout the course. However, teaching style was also found to have an independent effect; the differentiated style was associated with higher levels of intrinsic motivation and task goal involvement and lower levels of work avoidance involvement. A differentiated teaching style can positively influence young girls’ reactions to a sports activity independently of perceptions of goal orientations, autonomy, and competence.
Alister McCormick, Carla Meijen and Samuele Marcora
use strategic, motivational self-talk did not affect preevent self-efficacy or perceived control. It also did not affect performance in the ultramarathon, although this latter finding could be explained by the sample size and variability in performance times. Nevertheless, the data suggested that most
Denise M. Hill, Matthew Cheesbrough, Paul Gorczynski and Nic Matthews
the short and long term by lowering their self-confidence and encouraging negative thinking. In turn, this psychological state was suggested to detrimentally affect the remainder of the athlete’s current performance (unless the choke occurred at the end of the game) and any future pressurized
Mike Stoker, Ian Maynard, Joanne Butt, Kate Hays and Paul Hughes
.e., reward, forfeit, or judgment) stressor on experiences of pressure. We hypothesized that each individual demand and consequence stressor would increase experiences of pressure and that increasing each demand stressor would negatively affect performance. Methods Participants After institutional ethics approval was
Paul R. Ashbrook, Andrew Gillham and Douglas Barba
, theorizing that each athlete was fundamentally different and should be treated uniquely. Hanin stated that the purpose of the IZOF model was to describe, predict, and understand how individual athletes’ subjective experience affects their athletic performance. The assumption is that during any athletic
Stephen D. Mellalieu, Sheldon Hanton and Graham Jones
The purpose of this study was to extend the work of Jones and Hanton (2001) by examining differences in affective states of performers who reported facilitating or debilitating interpretations of symptoms associated with precompetitive anxiety. Competitive athletes (N = 229) completed state and trait versions of the CSAI-2 (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990), including intensity and direction subscales (Jones & Swain, 1992) and an exploratory measure of precompetitive affective responses in preparation and competition. “Facilitators” reported significantly greater positive labeling of affective experiences than “debilitators,” while cognitive interpretations of symptoms were reported to change with regard to preparation for and actual performance. The findings further support the need to examine the labeling and measurement of precompetitive affective states.
Rebecca Hare, Lynne Evans and Nichola Callow
The present study explored the perceived affect of personal and situational variables, perception of pain, and imagery ability on the function and outcome of an Olympic athlete’s use of imagery. To gain an in-depth understanding of these factors, semistructured interviews were conducted across three phases of injury rehabilitation, and return to competition. The athlete also completed the Athletic Injury Imagery Questionnaire-2 (Sordoni, Hall, & Forwell, 2002), the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2 (Roberts, Callow, Markland, Hardy, & Bringer, 2008), and the Visual Analogue Scale for pain (Huskisson, 1974). Findings highlight the perceived affects of personal and situational variables and imagery ability on the athlete’s responses to injury and function of imagery use. Further, this usage was perceived by the athlete to affect outcome depending on the phase of rehabilitation. Interestingly, perception of pain was not considered by the athlete to influence imagery use, this might have been due to the low pain rating reported.
Simon Davies and John D. West
This article familiarizes sport psychologists, counselors, and coaches with the multimodal approach to enhancing the performance of college athletes. The seven modalities of behavior, affect, sensations, imagery, cognitions, interpersonal relations, and biological functioning are examined. An individualized modality profile for a collegiate soccer player with performance problems is generated. Various applied intervention techniques are suggested to facilitate performance enhancement.