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Michael Higgins

Edited by Martin A. Fees

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Marc R. Bernier

Column-editor : Jeff G. Konin

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Jason Brumitt, Bryan C. Heiderscheit, Robert C. Manske, Paul Niemuth, Alma Mattocks and Mitchell J. Rauh

Context:

The Lower-Extremity Functional Test (LEFT) has been used to assess readiness to return to sport after a lowerextremity injury. Current recommendations suggest that women should complete the LEFT in 135 s (average; range 120–150 s) and men should complete the test in 100 s (average; range 90–125 s). However, these estimates are based on limited data and may not be reflective of college athletes. Thus, additional assessment, including normative data, of the LEFT in sport populations is warranted.

Objective:

To examine LEFT times based on descriptive information and off-season training habits in NCAA Division III (DIII) athletes. In addition, this study prospectively examined the LEFT’s ability to discriminate sport-related injury occurrence.

Design:

Descriptive epidemiology.

Setting:

DIII university.

Subjects:

189 DIII college athletes (106 women, 83 men) from 15 teams.

Main Outcome Measures:

LEFT times, preseason questionnaire, and time-loss injuries during the sport season.

Results:

Men completed the LEFT (105 ± 9 s) significantly faster than their female counterparts (117 ± 10 s) (P < .0001). Female athletes who reported >3–5 h/wk of plyometric training during the off-season had significantly slower LEFT scores than those who performed ≤3 h/wk of plyometric training (P = .03). The overall incidence of a lower-quadrant (LQ) time-loss injury for female athletes was 4.5/1000 athletic exposures (AEs) and 3.7/1000 AEs for male athletes. Female athletes with slower LEFT scores (≥118 s) experienced a higher rate of LQ time-loss injuries than those with faster LEFT scores (≤117 s) (P = .03).

Conclusion:

Only off-season plyometric training practices seem to affect LEFT score times among female athletes. Women with slower LEFT scores are more likely to be injured than those with faster LEFT scores. Injury rates in men were not influenced by performance on the LEFT.

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Sean J. Maloney, Anthony N. Turner and Stuart Miller

It has previously been shown that a loaded warm-up may improve power performances. We examined the acute effects of loaded dynamic warm-up on change of direction speed (CODS), which had not been previously investigated. Eight elite badminton players participated in three sessions during which they performed vertical countermovement jump and CODS tests before and after undertaking the dynamic warm-up. The three warm-up conditions involved wearing a weighted vest (a) equivalent to 5% body mass, (b) equivalent to 10% body mass, and (c) a control where a weighted vest was not worn. Vertical jump and CODS performances were then tested at 15 seconds and 2, 4, and 6 minutes post warm-up. Vertical jump and CODS significantly improved following all warm-up conditions (P < .05). Post warm-up vertical jump performance was not different between conditions (P = .430). Post warm-up CODS was significantly faster following the 5% (P = .02) and 10% (P < .001) loaded conditions compared with the control condition. In addition, peak CODS test performances, independent of recovery time, were faster than the control condition following the 10% loaded condition (P = .012). In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that a loaded warm-up augmented CODS, but not vertical jump performance, in elite badminton players.

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Thomas M. Newman, Giampietro L. Vairo and William E. Buckley

level II evidence research studies were surveyed for this CAT. 1 , 2 • For this CAT, 1 randomized controlled trial 3 and 3 prospective cohort studies were selected. 4 – 6 • One study found a statistically significant main effect of increased agility run times while participants wore ankle braces. 4

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Revay O. Corbett, Tyler R. Keith and Jay Hertel

Missouri agility test (SEMO). Subjects were asked to report a VAS for confidence following each task to assess perceived confidence in their ankle to perform the task. Subjects were asked the following question: “How confident were you in your ankle in completing that task?” with “no confidence at all” and

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Brittany Mann, Allison H. Gruber, Shane P. Murphy and Carrie L. Docherty

influence of ankle braces during a variety of functional tests such as the vertical jump, agility drills, and speed tests. These studies usually evaluate the effect of the brace only on performance measures such as the height, distance, or speed for these tests, respectively. Therefore, when authors

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Cody R. Smith, Cory L. Butts, J.D. Adams, Matthew A. Tucker, Nicole E. Moyen, Matthew S. Ganio and Brendon P. McDermott

-10-5 pro-agility drill and 1500-m run), and 15 minutes of additional cooling (treatment 2, T 2 ) with the same treatment as T 1 . The 2 trials began within an hour of one another and were separated by 14 days, and participants completed 1 trial using HEK for T 1 and T 2 , and 1 control (CON) trial without

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Rodney Negrete and Jay Brophy

Objectives:

To determine (1) correlations between isokinetic lower extremity strength and functional performance and (2) correlations among different modes of isokinetic testing.

Design and Setting:

A correlational design with 6 measures. A series of strength, power, and agility tests was performed at a hospital-based outpatient physical therapy clinic.

Participants:

A volunteer sample of 29 male and 31 female, college-age subjects participated.

Measurements:

All subjects were tested in the following isokinetic tests: reciprocal leg press, single-leg squat, and knee extension. Performance tests included single-leg hop and vertical jump and a speed/agility test.

Results:

Analysis showed isokinetic knee extension, leg press, and single-leg squat strength significantly correlated to all functional tests. There were significant correlations among the 3 different isokinetic strength measures, as well.

Conclusions:

These results suggest a significant relationship between lower extremity open and closed chain isokinetic strength and functional performance testing.

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John E. Kovaleski, Robert J. Heitman, Damon P.S. Andrew, Larry R. Gurchiek and Albert W. Pearsall IV

Context:

Isokinetic strength and functional performance are used to assess recovery after rehabilitation. It is not known whether low-speed closed-linear-kinetic isokinetic muscle strength correlates with functional performance.

Objective:

To investigate the relationship between linear closed (CKC) and open (OKC) concentric isokinetic strength of the dominant lower-limb extensors and functional performance.

Design:

Correlational analysis.

Setting:

University laboratory.

Participants:

Thirty uninjured men and women (age = 20.9 ± 2.4 years).

Main Outcome Measures:

Peak CKC and OKC isokinetic strength and best score from a shuttle run for time, single-leg vertical jump, and single-leg hop for distance.

Results:

Neither lower-limb CKC nor OKC isokinetic strength measured at low speeds correlated highly with performance on the functional tasks of jumping, hopping, and speed/agility.

Conclusions:

Although the basis of both closed and open isokinetic strength must be appreciated, they should not be the only determinants of functional performance.