Anaerobic capacity/anaerobically attributable power is an important parameter for athletic performance, not only for short high-intensity activities but also for breakaway efforts and end spurts during endurance events. Unlike aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity cannot be easily quantified. The 3 most commonly used methodologies to quantify anaerobic capacity are the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit method, the critical power concept, and the gross efficiency method. This review describes these methods, evaluates if they result in similar estimates of anaerobic capacity, and highlights how anaerobic capacity is used during sporting activities. All 3 methods have their own strengths and weaknesses and result in more or less similar estimates of anaerobic capacity but cannot be used interchangeably. The method of choice depends on the research question or practical goal.
Dionne A. Noordhof, Philip F. Skiba, and Jos J. de Koning
Adam J. Pinos, David J. Bentley, and Heather M. Logan-Sprenger
, or 20–50 s) relies on a greater proportion of cellular energy derived from anaerobic glycolysis, as reflected by higher elevations in blood lactate (BLa) concentration compared with distance (>400 m) events. 1 – 4 A variety of physiological testing assessments have been well documented, with
Yuri de Almeida Costa Campos, Jeferson M. Vianna, Miller P. Guimarães, Hiago L.R. Souza, Raúl Domínguez, Jefferson S. Novaes, Luis F.M. Leitão, Sandro F. Silva, and Victor M. Reis
Blood lactate concentrations (BLa) to determine anaerobic threshold (AnT) is a tool commonly used to verify fitness changes 1 and for moderate-intensity training prescription in long-distance runners. 1 , 2 However, its use requires sophisticated equipment 3 that increases complexity 4 and
Farid Farhani, Hamid Rajabi, Raoof Negaresh, Ajmol Ali, Sadegh Amani Shalamzari, and Julien S. Baker
agility and sprint running performance but lower vertical jump and half-squat power performance than soccer. 3 , 4 The ratio of activity to rest in futsal is about 1:1, and although there is a high anaerobic demand, more than 75% of all energy is resynthesized by the oxidative phosphorylation pathway
Yvonne Baillie, Matt Wyon, and Andrew Head
This study looked at the physiological effects of performance in Highland-dance competition to consider whether the traditional methods used during class and rehearsal provide an appropriate training stimulus toward this performance.
Nine championship standard, female Highland dancers (age 14.2 ± 1.47 years) had their heart rate and blood lactate concentrations measured before and after 3 dances during a championship competition. Heart rate was also measured during the same 3 dances in rehearsal and during class.
Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed significant differences in pre dance lactate concentrations between the first dance (Highland Fling, 1.4 ± 0.3 mM/L), the second dance (Sword dance, 2.3 ± 0.8 mM/L), and the third dance (Sean Truibhas, 3.5 ± 1.8 mM/L; F 2,16 = 11.72, P < .01. This, coupled with a significant rise in lactate concentration during the dances (F 1,8 = 76.75, P < .001), resulted in a final post dance lactate concentration of 7.3 ± 2.96 mM/L. Heart-rate data during competition, rehearsal, and class (195.0 ± 6.5, 172.6 ± 5.4, and 151.9 ± 7.4 beats/min, respectively) showed significant differences between all 3 (F2,16 = 107.1, P < .001); these are comparable to research on other dance forms.
Given the disparity between the anaerobic predominance of competition and the aerobic predominance during class, it is suggested that the class does not provide an appropriate training stimulus as preparation for competitive performance in Highland dance.
Gareth N. Sandford, Sian V. Allen, Andrew E. Kilding, Angus Ross, and Paul B. Laursen
Preparation for 800-m running represents a unique challenge to the middle-distance coach. With close interplay required between aerobic and anaerobic/neuromuscular physiology, athletes with distinctly different profiles have an opportunity for success in the event. Recently, a “changing of the
Rodrigo dos Santos Guimarães, Alcides Correa de Morais Junior, Raquel Machado Schincaglia, Bryan Saunders, Gustavo Duarte Pimentel, and João Felipe Mota
al., 2010 ). The intermittent nature and prolonged duration of soccer require players to perform exercise with contributions from both aerobic and anaerobic energy systems ( Bangsbo, 1994 ). Considering that the development of fatigue occurs through distinct actions during the game, the underlying mechanism
Cameron O’Beirne, Dawne Larkin, and Tim Cable
Generally, children with coordination problems lack fitness and muscular strength. This study was designed to identify whether these children differed from age-matched controls on measures of anaerobic performance. Twenty-four boys who were poorly coordinated, from three age groups, 7, 8, and 9 years, were compared to 24 coordinated controls (N = 48). The McCarron (1982) Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) was used to confirm levels of coordination. Anaerobic performance was estimated with the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) and a 50-m run. The poorly coordinated group’s performance on the WAnT was significantly lower than the performance of the controls for measures of peak power normalized for body weight, absolute and normalized mean power, and the fatigue index. The subjects who were poorly coordinated were also significantly slower performing the 50-m sprint. There was a significant relationship between power measured on the WAnT and coordination measured by the MAND gross motor score. For this population, coordination problems were considered among the factors that may interfere with the measurement of anaerobic performance.
Tiago Turnes, Rafael Penteado dos Santos, Rafael Alves de Aguiar, Thiago Loch, Leonardo Trevisol Possamai, and Fabrizio Caputo
running. 10 A similarity between [HHb]BP and maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) seems to occur in sedentary 7 and trained athletes. 10 Furthermore, contradictory results have been observed when comparing [HHb]BP with the anaerobic threshold (AnT) using a fixed BLC of 4 mmol·L −1 . 10 Although MLSS is
Linda D. Zwiren
This paper deals with the measurement of aerobic and anaerobic power in children, and how these capacities are affected by growth and training. The type of tests available, the selection of ergometer, establishment of criteria for determining whether a maximal value has been attained, and the limitations of the various expressions of maximal values are discussed. Aerobic capacity, when expressed in liters per minute, has been observed to increase with growth; when expressed relative to body weight, aerobic capacity has been shown to remain the same or decrease with age. Anaerobic capacity increases with age no matter how the values are expressed. Limited evidence suggests that training during prepubescence does not increase aerobic capacity beyond that expected from growth. Several methodological limitations of longitudinal studies are examined.