This study investigated the enjoyment and perceived competence of normal-weight (n = 48) and overweight (n = 20) adolescents during physical education (PE) classes. Amount of PE time spent in moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA), as well as cardiorespiratory fitness (graded treadmill test) and body composition (body mass index) were also compared. Normal-weight students reported the greatest values for enjoyment (p = .008) and perceived competence (p = .005), though no differences in MVPA and VPA were observed. Cardiorespiratory fitness was highest among normal-weight students (p < .0001). In comparison with normal-weight adolescents, overweight youth might not be provided with optimal psychological experiences during PE classes.
Stuart Fairclough and Gareth Stratton
Nicola D. Ridgers and Gareth Stratton
Recess offers primary school age children the opportunity to engage in physical activity, though few studies have detailed the physical activity levels of children in this environment. The physical activity levels of 270 children ages 6-11 years from 18 schools were monitored on 1 school day using heart rate telemetry. Data revealed that boys engaged in higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than did girls during recess (26 and 20 min, respectively). These results suggest that recess can make a worthwhile contribution to the recommended 60 min of MVPA per day.
Mark Loftin, Patricia Strikmiller, Barbara Warren, Leann Myers, Leslie Schroth, James Pittman, David Harsha and Melinda Sothern
Peak cardiorespiratory responses, physical activity patterns, and the association of VO2peak and physical activity were examined in 16 elementary (ES) and 16 high school (HS) females. Peak responses were assessed during treadmill running, and physical activity patterns were examined over two 12-hour weekdays. Results indicated similar relative VO2peak responses between groups (ES: M = 46.8 ml · kg−1 · min−1;HS:M = 46.6 ml · kg−1 · min−1). No statistical differences (p ≤ .05) were noted when moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) were compared. Also, a three-way (Group × HR level × Sustained minutes) ANOVA revealed no statistical differences. A median correlation (r = .27) was found from 8 independent correlations of habitual physical activity and VO2peak. ES and HS appeared similar in regard to VO2peak, accumulative and sustained MVPA and VPA. Low levels of sustained MVPA and VPA (≥ 10 min) were evident in both groups.
Phil Hamdorf, Gary Starr and Mark Williams
Participation in physical activity declines with advancing age for a variety of reasons. The aim of this study was to assess the level of physical activity among older South Australians. Computer-aided telephone interviewing of 773 adults age 60 years and over was conducted using random-digit dialing. Rates of participation among adults age 60 years and over in walking and vigorous physical activity (68.1% and 11.7%, respectively) were significantly lower than for those age 18–59 years (77.6% and 38.9%, respectively). Walking was the most popular activity among those age 60 and over. The proportion reporting no physical activity rose from 7.0% in the 60- to 64-year age group to 25.7% in the 85+ group. The findings describe increases in physical inactivity coupled with declines in functional ability with advancing age and suggest that much work remains to fully understand how best to encourage older adults to remain physically active.
Michael J. Duncan, Lorayne Woodfield, Yahya Al-Nakeeb and Alan M. Nevill
The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity levels between white and South Asian children in the UK. The data were obtained from 606, 11–14 year old schoolchildren (397 white; 209 Asian). Physical activity was assessed using the ‘four by one day’ recall questionnaire from which the time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity was calculated. Boys were significantly more active than girls (p = .0001), and white children reported significantly greater physical activity than south Asian children (p = .001). Mean ± SD of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity was 90.2 ± 65.4 mins and 68.2 ± 49.3 mins for white and south Asian children and 103.5 ± 63.4 mins and 65.6 ± 53.5 mins for boys and girls respectively. These findings indicate that south Asian children are significantly less active than their white peers and there may be a need for specific interventions to target South Asian children particularly.
Pedro Curi Hallal and Fernando Vinholes Siqueira
Physical inactivity is now a public health priority because of the high rates of inactivity observed worldwide. Achievement of physical activity guidelines could be attained with vigorous, moderate, or both activities combined. Our aim was to explore the prevalence and correlates of compliance with vigorous physical activity guidelines (CVAG).
Cross-sectional population-based survey in Pelotas, a southern Brazilian city, including 3182 adults (≥ 20 years). The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was applied by face-to-face interviews. CVAG was defined as at least 60 min/wk of vigorous activity.
Only 29% of the subjects achieved the vigorous activity threshold. Women, older adults, individuals with low BMI (< 18.5 kg/m2) or obese (≥ 30 kg/m2) were less likely to present CVAG. Compliance with moderate activity guidelines was associated with a higher likelihood of CVAG.
Concurrent promotion of moderate and vigorous physical activities is warranted in terms of public health.
Deise J.A. Faleiro, Enaiane C. Menezes, Eduardo Capeletto, Felipe Fank, Rafaela M. Porto and Giovana Z. Mazo
Objective: To analyze the scientific evidence on the association of physical activity with urinary incontinence in older women. Design: Searches were performed in MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and ScienceDirect. Observational studies were included. The following search terms were used: urinary incontinence, older adult, and physical activity. Methodological quality was assessed using the checklist proposed by Downs and Black. Results: Ten articles were included. Sedentary lifestyle and <150 min/week of physical activity are at risk of developing urinary incontinence. Walking (at least 30 min) and physical activities (600–1,500 and 600 METs/min per week) prevent urinary incontinence. Seven of the 10 studies indicated a good level of methodological quality. Conclusions: Sedentary lifestyle is at risk of urinary incontinence, and walking, moderate and vigorous physical activities are associated with prevention of urinary incontinence.
Jaakko Kaprio and Seppo Sarna
Occupational disability was investigated in former Finnish athletes in the Olympic Games, World or European championships, or intercountry competitions during 1920–1965 (N = 2,402 men) for eight selected sports. The referents were 1,712 men selected from the Finnish conscription register, matched on age and area of residence and classified as completely healthy. The first outcome measure was the length of working life based on the age when the subject was granted a disability pension, or age at death before age 65. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of mean working life expectancy was 61.4 years for endurance sport athletes, 60.0 years for team games athletes, and 59.2 years for power sport competitors, compared with 57.6 years for the reference group. Decreased coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular and respiratory morbidity were observed for all athletes when compared with the referent group. It was concluded that sustained and vigorous physical activity during early adulthood may extend the occupationally active life span and defer the onset of disability before retirement age.
Bradley M. Appelhans and Hong Li
This study tested associations of organized sports participation and unstructured active play with overall moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in low-income children and examined factors associated with participation frequency.
Research staff visited 88 low-income Chicago households with children ages 6–13 years. MVPA was assessed through 7-day accelerometry. Researchers documented the home availability of physical activity equipment. Caregivers reported on child participation in organized sports and unstructured active play, family support for physical activity, perceived neighborhood safety, and access to neighborhood physical activity venues.
Despite similar participation in organized sports and unstructured active play, boys accumulated more MVPA than girls. MVPA was predicted by an interaction between gender and unstructured active play. Boys accumulated 23–45 additional minutes of weekday MVPA and 53–62 additional minutes of weekend MVPA through unstructured active play, with no such associations in girls. Higher reported neighborhood safety and family support for physical activity were associated with engagement in unstructured active play for both genders, and with participation in organized sports for girls.
Physical activity interventions for low-income, urban children should emphasize unstructured active play, particularly in boys. Fostering family support for physical activity and safe play environments may be critical intervention components.
Kylie Ball, Verity J. Cleland, Anna F. Timperio, Jo Salmon and David A. Crawford
This study aimed to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and physical activity and sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents.
Maternal education was reported by parents of 184 children 5 to 6 years old and 358 children 10 to 12 years old in 2001. In 2001 and 2004, physical activity was assessed by accelerometry. Older children self-reported and parents of younger children proxy-reported physical activity and TV-viewing behaviors. Linear regression was used to predict physical activity and sedentary behaviors, and changes in these behaviors, from maternal education.
Among all children, accelerometer-determined and self- or parent-reported moderate and vigorous physical activity declined over 3 years. Girls of higher SEP demonstrated greater decreases in TV-viewing behaviors than those of low SEP. In general, no prospective associations were evident between SEP and objectively assessed physical activity. A small number of prospective associations were noted between SEP and self-reported physical activity, but these were generally weak and inconsistent in direction.
This study did not find strong evidence that maternal education was cross-sectionally or longitudinally predictive of children’s physical activity or sedentary behaviors. Given the well-documented inverse relationship of SEP with physical activity levels in adult samples, the findings suggest that such disparities might emerge after adolescence.