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Robson Dias Scoz, Cesar F. Amorim, Bruno O.A. Mazziotti, Rubens A. Da Silva, Edgar R. Vieira, Alexandre D. Lopes and Ronaldo E.C.D. Gabriel

The knee joint provides functionality and independence to the individual and almost half of knee ligament injuries occur to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). 1 , 2 Data from the United States indicate an incidence of approximately 200,000 ACL injuries per year, 70% of these injuries occurring

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Haley Bookbinder, Lindsay V. Slater, Austin Simpson, Jay Hertel and Joseph M. Hart

Knee injuries are the second most common injury to occur during college athletics, but are the most common injury to keep an athlete out of play for more than 10 days. 1 One of the most commonly disrupted ligaments in the knee is the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). 2 An estimated 80,000 to 250

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Zakariya Nawasreh, David Logerstedt, Adam Marmon and Lynn Snyder-Mackler

Rupturing the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common knee injury in sport activities. 1 Repeated episodes of knee instability, joint effusion, quadriceps strength deficits, limb-to-limb movement asymmetry, neuromuscular dysfunction, and abnormal gait pattern are commonplace after ACL rupture

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Lauren Anne Lipker, Caitlyn Rae Persinger, Bradley Steven Michalko and Christopher J. Durall

Clinical Scenario Quadriceps atrophy and weakness are common after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). 1 , 2 Blood flow restriction (BFR) therapy, alone or in combination with exercise, has shown some promise in promoting muscular hypertrophy. 1 – 3 This review was conducted to

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Kate N. Jochimsen, Margaret R. Pelton, Carl G. Mattacola, Laura J. Huston, Emily K. Reinke, Kurt P. Spindler, Christian Lattermann and Cale A. Jacobs

trajectory of PCS scores from time of injury to 6 months following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has been partially described, as Chmielewski et al 12 reported a decrease in PCS scores over the first 12 weeks of physical therapy following ACLR. It remains unclear how PCS scores respond

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Steven Malvasi, Brian Gloyeske, Matthew Johnson and Timothy Miller


Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common orthopedic injuries in the United States, while injury to the patellar tendon (PT) is less common. A combined rupture to the ACL and PT is consequentially uncommon and increases the difficulty of a correct initial diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise the current peer-reviewed literature regarding multi-ligamentous knee injuries (MLKI) in sport.


A systematic review was undertaken to identify all relevant peer-reviewed articles regarding MLKI from March 1980 to January 2015. All articles pertaining to simultaneous rupture of the ACL and PT were included for review.


A total of 27 cases presented in 15 articles were used. Findings suggest that the combination of a palpable gap over the PT, a positive Lachman test, inability to complete terminal knee extension, and a superior position of the patella are clinical examination markers for a possible MLKI involving the ACL and PT.


Simultaneous rupture to the ACL and PT is incredibly rare within the sport population, making diagnosis and treatment of such injury challenging. A thorough examination of the extensor mechanism of the knee is important in making the proper diagnosis.

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Rosa M. Rodriguez, Ashley Marroquin and Nicole Cosby

knee complaints are related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. 2 , 3 The ACL is commonly injured in contact sports by a noncontact action, such as planting, cutting, landing on a hyperextended knee, or pivoting and sudden deceleration. 4 Typically, athletes report feeling immediate pain

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Walter Herzog and Lynda Read

The purpose of this study was to estimate cruciate ligament forces in Alpine skiing during a movement that has been associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Resultant knee joint forces and moments were obtained from two skiers during a World Cup Downhill race using an inverse dynamics approach and a 2-D bilaterally symmetric system model. It was found that ACL forces were typically small for both skiers throughout the movement analyzed because quadriceps forces prevented anterior displacement of the tibia relative to the femur at the knee joint angles observed. However, for about 10 ms, loading conditions in the knee joint of Subject 2 (who displayed poor form) were such that large ACL forces may have been present. These particular loading conditions were never observed in Subject 1, who displayed good form. Since neither of the skiers was injured, it is not possible to draw firm conclusions about isolated ACL tears in Alpine skiing from the data at hand.

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Scott M. Lephart, Mininder S. Kocher, Freddie H. Fu, Paul A. Borsa and Christopher D. Harner

Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is thought to disrupt joint afferent sensation and result in proprioceptive deficits. This investigation examined proprioception following ACL reconstruction. Using a proprioceptive testing device designed for this study, kinesthetic awareness was assessed by measuring the threshold to detect passive motion in 12 active patients, who were 11 to 26 months post-ACL reconstruction, using arthroscopic patellar tendon autograft (n=6) or allograft (n=6) techniques. Results revealed significantly decreased kinesthetic awareness in the ACL reconstructed knee versus the uninvolved knee at the near-terminal range of motion and enhanced kinesthetic awareness in the ACL reconstructed knee with the use of a neoprene orthotic. Kinesthesia was enhanced in the near-terminal range of motion for both the ACL reconstructed knee and the contralateral uninvolved knee. No significant between-group differences were observed with autograft and allograft techniques.

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Jay R. Ebert, Kate E. Webster, Peter K. Edwards, Brendan K. Joss, Peter D’Alessandro, Greg Janes and Peter Annear

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are prevalent, estimated at up to 78 per 100,000 people in the general population. 1 Surgical ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is considered the current standard clinical treatment. 2 In Australia, the incidence of ACLR is the highest in the world, with an overall