The aim of this investigation was to assess the effects of 6 wk of eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplementation on resting and exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in judoists. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or a capsule of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; 600 mg EPA and 400 mg DHA). Blood samples were collected in preexercise and postexercise conditions (judo-training session), both before and after the supplementation period. The following parameters were analyzed: α-tocopherol, retinol, lag phase, maximum rate of oxidation (Rmax) during the propagating chain reaction, maximum amount of conjugated dienes (CDmax) accumulated after the propagation phase, nitric oxide (NO) and malondyaldehide (MDA) concentrations, salivary glutathione peroxidase activity, and the lipid profile. Dietary data were collected using a 7-day dietary record. A significant interaction effect between supplementation and time (p < .01) on triglycerides was noted, with values significantly lower in the n-3 long-chain-PUFA (LCPUFA) group after supplementation than in the placebo group. Significant interaction effects between supplementation and time on resting MDA concentrations and Rmax were found (p = .03 and p = .04, respectively), with elevated values in the n-3 LCPUFA group after supplementation and no change in the placebo group’s levels. The authors observed a significantly greater NO and oxidative-stress increase with exercise (MDA, Rmax, CDmax, and NO) in the n-3 LCPUFA group than with placebo. No main or interaction effects were found for retinol and α-tocopherol. These results indicate that supplementation with n-3 LCPUFAs significantly increased oxidative stress at rest and after a judo-training session.
Edith Filaire, Alain Massart, Hugues Portier, Matthieu Rouveix, Fatima Rosado, Anne S. Bage, Mylène Gobert and Denys Durand
Ewa Jówko, Jaroslaw Sacharuk, Bozena Balasinska, Jacek Wilczak, Malgorzata Charmas, Piotr Ostaszewski and Robert Charmas
To evaluate the effect of acute ingestion of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on blood markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage in soccer players exposed to intense exercise.
This randomized, double-blinded study was conducted on 16 players during a general preparation period, when all athletes participated in a strength-training program focused on the development of strength endurance. After ingestion of a single dose of GTP (640 mg) or placebo, all athletes performed an intense muscle-endurance test consisting of 3 sets of 2 strength exercises (bench press, back squat) performed to exhaustion, with a load at 60% 1-repetition maximum and 1-min rests between sets. Blood samples were collected preexercise, 5 min after the muscle-endurance test, and after 24 hr of recovery. Blood plasma was analyzed for the concentrations of thiobarbituric acid–reacting substances (TBARS), uric acid (UA), total catechins, total antioxidant status (TAS), and activity of creatine kinase (CK); at the same time, erythrocytes were assayed for the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD).
In both groups, plasma TBARS, UA, and TAS increased significantly postexercise and remained elevated after a 24-hr recovery period. SOD activity in erythrocytes did not change significantly in response to the muscle-endurance test, whereas in both groups plasma CK activity increased significantly after 24 hr of recovery. Acute intake of GTP cased a slight but significant increase in total plasma catechins. However, GTP was found not to exert a significant effect on measured parameters.
Acute ingestion of GTP (640 mg) does not attenuate exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage.
Theodore Tsakiris, Panagoula Angelogianni, Christine Tesseromatis, Stylianos Tsakiris and Kleopatra H. Schulpis
Forced exercise is associated with oxidative stress, and L-cysteine (L-cys) administration reduces free-radical production.
To investigate whether L-cys (5 mg/kg) intraperitoneal administration can ameliorate modulated total antioxidant status (TAS), protein concentration, and the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), (Na+,K+)-ATPase, and Mg2+-ATPase in rat brain after 2 and 3 hr of forced swimming.
TAS, protein, and enzyme activities were measured spectrophotometrically before and after 2 and 3 hr of exercise without or with L-cys administration.
TAS concentration (55.6 ± 1.5 vs. 42.1 ± 1.0 vs. 37.4 ± 1.2 μmol/L, p < .001), protein concentration (5.68 ± 0.36 vs. 5.40 ± 0.18 vs. 4.01 ± 0.16 mg/ml, p < .01), and AChE activity (0.89 ± 0.05 vs. 0.61 ± 0.04 vs. 0.48 ± 0.03 ΔOD/min × mg protein, p < .001) were significantly reduced, whereas Na+,K+-ATPase (6.00 ± 0.36 vs. 10.44 ± 1.04 vs. 11.90 ± 1.21 µmol phosphorus inorganic/hr × mg protein, p < .001) and Mg2+-ATPase activity (7.20 ± 0.65 vs. 10.88 ± 1.08 vs. 11.55 ± 1.22 µmol phosphorus inorganic/hr × mg protein, p < .001) were statistically significantly increased after 2 and 3 hr of forced exercise. Post-L-cys administration, AChE activity was decreased (0.90 ± 0.04 vs. 0.47 ± 0.02 ΔOD/min × mg protein, p < .001) and remained unaltered (0.64 ± 0.04 vs. 0.67 ± 0.04 ΔOD/min × mg protein, p > .05) 2 and 3 hr postexercise (0.47 ± 0.02 vs. 0.54 ± 0.02 ΔOD/min × mg protein, p > .05). Na+,K+-ATPase was decreased and remained unchanged (1.85 ± 0.17 vs. 1.77 ± 0.19 µmol phosphorus inorganic/hr × mg protein, p > .05) 2 and 3 hr postswimming (1.91 ± 0.19 vs. 2.06 ±0.17 µmol phosphorus inorganic/hr × mg protein, p > .05). Mg2+-ATPase activity was similar with L-cys supplementation pre- vs. postswimming.
L-cys administration might ameliorate modulated rat brain enzyme activities induced by free-radical production during forced swimming.
Nathan A. Lewis, Andrew J. Simpkin, Sarah Moseley, Gareth Turner, Mark Homer, Ann Redgrave, Charles R. Pedlar and Richard Burden
Y , Steinberg JG , Delliaux S . Chronic fatigue syndrome: acute infection and history of physical activity affect resting levels and response to exercise of plasma oxidant/antioxidant status and heat shock proteins . J Intern Med . 2012 ; 272 ( 1 ): 74 – 84 . PubMed ID: 22112145 doi:10
Emma M. Crum, Matthew J. Barnes and Stephen R. Stannard
of correlation between plasma NO 3 − and VO 2 . Despite no difference in NO 3 − between POMx and BOTH, the VO 2 -lowering effects of POMx were reversed in BOTH, apparently due to an NAC-induced increase in VO 2 . This differs from previous research, which showed an increased antioxidant status and
Nathan A. Lewis, Ann Redgrave, Mark Homer, Richard Burden, Wendy Martinson, Brian Moore and Charles R. Pedlar
levels and response to exercise of plasma oxidant/antioxidant status and heat shock proteins . J Intern Med . 2012 ; 272 : 74 – 84 . PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02488.x 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02488.x 22112145 14. Lewis NA , Towey C , Bruinvels G , Howatson G , Pedlar CR
Matthew David Cook and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems
those with a relatively low anthocyanin intake. It has been recently shown that baseline antioxidant status can be a determinant in the effectiveness of supplementing with antioxidants. For example, individuals with a low baseline status of vitamin C ( Paschalis et al., 2016 ) and glutathione
Daniel Bok and Igor Jukić
doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181818e0b 10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181818e0b 18806550 32. Fatouros I , Chatzinikolaou A , Douroudos I , et al . Time-course of changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant status responses following a soccer game . J Strength Cond Res . 2010 ; 24 ( 12 ): 3278 – 3286
Achraf Ammar, Stephen J. Bailey, Omar Hammouda, Khaled Trabelsi, Nabil Merzigui, Kais El Abed, Tarak Driss, Anita Hökelmann, Fatma Ayadi, Hamdi Chtourou, Adnen Gharbi and Mouna Turki
, biomarkers of muscle damage and antioxidant status . Biol Sport . 2018 ; 36 ( 1 ): 55 – 65 . doi:10.5114/biolsport.2018.78907 30899140 10.5114/biolsport.2018.78907 26. Hammouda O , Chtourou H , Chaouachi A , et al . Time-of-day effects on biochemical responses to soccer-specific endurance in
Malachy P. McHugh, Tom Clifford, Will Abbott, Susan Y. Kwiecien, Ian J. Kremenic, Joseph J. DeVita and Glyn Howatson
.3389/fphys.2017.00831 29118716 11. Fatouros IG , Chatzinikolaou A , Douroudos II , et al . Time-course of changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant status responses following a soccer game . J Strength Cond Res. 2010 ; 24 ( 12 ): 3278 – 3286 . PubMed ID: 19996787 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b