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Yong Jae Ko, Yonghwan Chang, Wonseok Jang, Michael Sagas and John Otto Spengler

behaviors (e.g.,  Appelbaum et al., 2012 ; Donavan, Carlson, & Zimmerman, 2005 ; Mowen, 2004 ). For example, applying Mowen’s (2000) hierarchical approach to spectator personality, Donavan et al. (2005) found that the personality traits of extraversion, agreeability, need for arousal, and materialism

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Terri Graham-Paulson, Claudio Perret and Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey

Arousal scale (a measure of perceived arousal; Svebak & Murgatroyd, 1985 ) during Visit 1. Presentation of Intervention The athlete visited the laboratory on five separate occasions. Previous evidence has suggested that individuals with paraplegia can display variable appearance rates following CAF

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Ben M. Krings, Brandon D. Shepherd, Hunter S. Waldman, Matthew J. McAllister and JohnEric W. Smith

felt arousal [FA]. It was hypothesized that CMR would increase RE training session volume in resistance-trained males. Methods Design The current investigation employed a randomized, counter-balanced, and double-blinded design, with the participants completing a total of five sessions. During Session 1

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Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado, Graig M. Chow, Nicole T. Gabana, Robert C. Hickner and Gershon Tenenbaum

) linear increase in RPE until volitional exhaustion, and (d) increase in perceived arousal until volitional exhaustion. Method Participants An a priori power analysis was undertaken using the G*Power 3 program ( Faul, Erdfelder, Lang, & Buchner, 2007 ) to establish appropriate sample size. Effect size f ( v ) = 0

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Thomas Finkenzeller, Sabine Würth, Michael Doppelmayr and Günter Amesberger

alternating low to moderate physical load would lead to a fluctuating decrease of reaction time induced through the changing level of physiological arousal during exercise and would maintain the level of the last interference measurement during exercise in the following postexercise blocks. Based on the

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Britton W. Brewer, Adisa Haznadar, Dylan Katz, Judy L. Van Raalte and Albert J. Petitpas

beneficial to sport performance, such as concentrating, feeling confident, feeling motivated, feeling prepared, experiencing optimal physiological arousal (e.g., calm, energized), and thinking constructively ( Baker & Horton, 2004 ; Birrer & Morgan, 2010 ; Eklund, 1994 ; Fletcher & Hanton, 2001 ; Gould

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Laura E. Juliff, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Shona L. Halson

regions of the brain through modulations of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that control daily cycles of wakefulness and sleep. 7 The ascending arousal system in the hypothalamus and sleep-active neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus interact much like a “flip-flop switch,” turning on and off

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Irene Muir, Krista J. Munroe-Chandler and Todd Loughead

Mental skills have been widely used in the motor domain as strategies to initiate and sustain performance ( Krane & Williams, 2006 ). In dance, mental skills have been employed as a means to control arousal and concentration and improve self-confidence and self-talk ( Fish, Hall, & Cumming, 2004

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Sarah Kölling, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Ranel Venter and Shona L. Halson

, with increasing arousal thresholds from stage N1 (light sleep) to N3 (deep sleep). In the course of the night, NREM and REM sleep alternate in cyclic fashion, with higher proportions of NREM in the first third of the night and expanding REM episodes throughout the night. 7 The measurement and

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Shane M. Murphy, Robert L. Woolfolk and Alan J. Budney

In this study, subjects were asked to select three different images they thought would make them angry, fearful, or relaxed. After imagining each scenario, subjects attempted a strength task utilizing a hand grip dynamometer. As predicted by the Oxendine hypothesis, the relaxation image significantly lowered performance on the strength task. Although subjects in the fear and anger conditions reported increased levels of arousal, no increase in strength performance was noted in these two conditions. A cognitive interpretation of the relationship between arousal and performance is advanced in explanation of the present findings. Specifically, it is suggested that preparatory arousal is effective only if subjects focus their attention while aroused on a successful outcome of performance. This explanation is consistent with current conceptualizations of cognitive preparation strategies as coping skill devices by which athletes manage their performance. Future research directions are suggested based upon the present findings.