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Wonseok Jang, Yong Jae Ko, Daniel L. Wann and Daehwan Kim

aliveness and energy” ( Ryan & Frederick, 1997 , p. 529), and it is similar to a sense of vigor and positive energetic arousal ( McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971 ). However, vitality differs from simply being aroused as vitality is only associated with the positive energy of arousal ( Ryan & Frederick, 1997

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Yonghwan Chang, Daniel L. Wann and Yuhei Inoue

experiences ( Csikszentmihalyi, 1990 ). As such, while watching sporting events, the feelings of negative emotions (such as anger and fear) might help optimize their desired arousal level as well as flow experiences for spectators with stronger iTeam ID. H3 : iTeam ID positively influences spectators’ flow

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Juha Yoon and Alex Chinhoo Gang

. What kind of strategies do you use to motivate your athletes? Chun : Each athlete is motivated in different ways. We are prone to make the misjudgment that taking a balanced carrot-and-stick approach is the right way of arousing the maximum level of motivation. But, in the interpersonal communication

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Jun Woo Kim, Marshall Magnusen and Hyun-Woo Lee

, characterized by two unipolar dimensions ( Cacioppo & Berntson, 1994 ). The former view categorizes positive and negative emotions as two ends of a continuum that are negatively correlated (PANAS; Watson & Tellegen, 1985 ) or mutually exclusive (valence-arousal model; Russell, 1980 ). The latter view raises

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Ben Larkin and Janet S. Fink

behavior beyond fans’ inability to CORFing that could lead to aggression. Such rationale included the presence of situational factors (i.e., heat, crowd noise, and density) that produce arousal, particularly for those highly identified fans who feel intense affect. They argued that arousal could exacerbate

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Brendan Dwyer, Joshua M. Lupinek and Rebecca M. Achen

participation, in particular, fantasy football participation (see Table  1 ). Farquhar and Meeds ( 2007 ) reported the following set of participant motives: surveillance, arousal, entertainment, escape, and social interaction. Dwyer and Kim ( 2011 ) uncovered similar motives (social interaction, entertainment

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T. Bettina Cornwell, Steffen Jahn, Hu Xie and Wang Suk Suh

restlessness related to lack of interest or excitement. Boredom has been discussed as related to (decreased) arousal, feelings of constraint, a subjective sense of repetitiveness, and potentially unpleasantness (see Geiwitz, 1966 ). Perhaps one of the most helpful definitional discussions of boredom comes

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Yonghwan Chang

other words, negative publicity may benefit from increased attention and processing efforts ( Ein-Gar, Shiv, & Tormala, 2012 ) as well as improved encoding in memory due to the intense and arousing nature of negative publicity ( Ito, Larsen, Smith, & Cacioppo, 1998 ). In summary, the researcher argues

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Joris Drayer, Brendan Dwyer and Stephen L. Shapiro

motivational factors for TFS participants (in descending order of emergence) include social interaction, entertainment, sport knowledge application, escape, arousal, financial (gambling), love of the game, substitute for losing team, surveillance, hedonic experience, becoming a general manager/head coach, and

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Sungho Cho, J. Lucy Lee, June Won and Jong Kwan (Jake) Lee

psychology theories: Theories indicate that when people encounter a pair of disparate objects, such intriguing disparity may form a cognitive arousal that makes them more attentive and engaged. . . . For instance, if a consumer sees NIKEPAL syringe, such schematic incongruity is likely to stimulate and