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James J. Zhang, Dale G. Pease and Dennis W. Smith

This study assessed the relationship between broadcasting and the attendance of minor league hockey games in terms of 5 media forms: cable television broadcasting, commercial television broadcasting, radio broadcasting, broadcasters, and overall broadcasting media. A random sample of spectators (N = 2,225) responded to a survey on attendance level and media use conducted in the arena during the intermissions of games from 6 second-half 1994-1995 season home games of an International Hockey League (ML) team. CM-square, f-test, and regression analyses revealed that viewing home games on cable television and away games on commercial television, listening to games on radio, and the quality of television and cable broadcasters were all positively associated with attendance, with approximately 6-11% game attendance variance explained. It is concluded that the current broadcasting arrangement is positively related to game attendance in providing information for and increasing the interests of spectators.

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Timothy D. DeSchriver and Paul E. Jensen

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between spectator attendance at NCAA Division II football contests and selected determinants by estimating multiple economic demand models. The two primary determinants analyzed were winning percentage and promotional activity. Demand models were estimated using OLS and fixed-effect regression analysis. The results suggested that both current and previous year winning percentages are positively related to attendance. Furthermore, it is shown that the effect of previous season winning on attendance diminishes while the effect of current season winning increases as the season progresses. The results also indicated that promotional activities, the number of enrolled students, and market competition significantly affected attendance. Overall, the demand models explained between 37 and 70 percent of the variation in spectator attendance. The findings of this study may aid Division II athletic administrators who are attempting to increase revenues by attracting additional spectators to small-college football contests.

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Fabio Lucidi, Caterina Grano, Claudio Barbaranelli and Cristiano Violani

The present study evaluated whether, and to what extent, the constructs implicated in the theory of planned behavior could predict behavioral intention to exercise and exercise-class attendance of older adults (age 65–90 years) already enrolled in a physical activity program. The study also evaluated whether including self-efficacy judgments might improve the predictive capacity of the model. Participants (N = 1,095) were randomly sampled Italian volunteers from exercise classes for older adults. First, they completed questionnaires assessing the above-mentioned constructs. Then, class attendance was recorded during the following 3 months. Results indicated a substantial correspondence between the model and the data. Perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy were the strongest predictors of behavioral intention, whereas attitudes and subjective norms only partially contributed to its prediction. The inclusion of self-efficacy improved the predictive capacity of the overall model. Finally, results showed a weak relation between behavioral intention and attendance rate in physical activity sessions.

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Kimberley A. Dawson, Lawrence R. Brawley and James E. Maddux

Many researchers in psychology and physical activity have discussed the overlap among control constructs in various theories. Skinner (1996) proposed an integrative control framework based on an agent-means-ends distinction that offered comparisons among and more explicit measurement of 3 control constructs—control, capacity, and strategy beliefs. No study in the exercise domain has yet empirically examined these advantages. This study evaluated Skinner’s framework relative to their contribution to predicting exercise attendance. A prospective design was used to consider the potential change in the nature of the relationships. High correlations (range r = .52–.88) at 2 time points in the exercise program suggested overlap among control constructs when using Skinner’s measurement procedures. Only capacity beliefs and behavioral intention were significantly related to exercise attendance (model R 2 adjusted = .11 and .16, p = .03 and .01, respectively, at onset and midprogram).Adjusted The findings do not support Skinner’s contentions but are similar to previous findings in the exercise literature.

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John P. Marcum and Theodore N. Greenstein

This study examines game-by-game attendance data for one National League team (St. Louis Cardinals) and one American League team (Texas Rangers) for the 1982 season to explore factors related to attendance at professional sporting events. Multiple regression analyses indicate that the major factors affecting attendance are day of the week, opponent, and type of promotion. Recent and season-long performance measures for both the home and visiting teams have relatively little effect on daily attendance.

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Zenon X. Zygmont and John C. Leadley

This study tests for the presence of a honeymoon effect in Major League Baseball by using a set of panel data for the period 1970 to 2000. It expands on the existing attendance demand literature by incorporating a theoretical model of attendance and price, imposing a more flexible form for the honeymoon effect, and distinguishing multipurpose stadiums from vintage and current baseball-only parks. The honeymoon effect for attendance and ticket price is substantial, and it continues with only a modest decline over the first eight to ten years. We conclude that a new baseball-only park that replaces an older multipurpose stadium will generate an additional $228 million in ticket revenue over 15 years. Although this is less than the cost of constructing a new facility, additional revenue sources might be sufficient to eliminate the need for public subsidies.

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R. Saylor Breckenridge and Pat Rubio Goldsmith

We examine the effect of the visibility of African American, Latino, and Jewish baseball players on attendance at Major League Baseball games between 1930 and 1961. We invoke the sociological concepts of “social distance,” “spectacle,” and “group threat” and incorporate data focusing on the era of integration to expand on previous research in this arena. Notably, African American and Latino player visibility—but not that of other groups—is revealed to increase attendance at games. This effect weakens for losing teams and in cities with relatively larger minority populations. The findings suggest a synthesis of theories is possible.

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Jo Weber and Eleanor H. Wertheim

Upon becoming members at a community gymnasium, 55 women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control, self-monitoring of gym attendance, or self-monitoring of attendance plus extra staff attention. The effect of these interventions on gym attendance over 3 months was examined. A 3 X 4 (Group X Time Phase, first 3 weeks to last 3 weeks) ANOVA indicated that the main effects for group and time predicted attendance at the gym. Attendance during the first 3 weeks was significantly greater than attendance thereafter. The control subjects attended significantly less than the self-monitoring subjects at all phases. Further research is suggested toward using self-monitoring, staff support, and periodic progress feedback for increasing program adherence. In addition, self-motivation and body fat percent were assessed initially. Correlations between these two variables and attendance failed to support their usefulness as predictors at any time phase.

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Kristiann Heesch, Louise C. Mâsse, Ralph F. Frankowski and Andrea L. Dunn


Interventions that teach strategies for integrating physical activity into a person’s daily routine are becoming more common. These interventions have been found to increase physical activity behavior, although the increases have not been large. The small to moderate changes in physical activity can result from participants having insufficient adherence to the intervention protocol to produce an intervention effect. Given that adherence is likely to affect the power to find a treatment effect, it should be tracked. This study examined changes in adherence over 6 months for a lifestyle physical activity intervention.


Participants were 244 sedentary adults who took part in the Project PRIME lifestyle physical activity intervention. Adherence was assessed separately for a group-based intervention (PRIME G) and a telephone- and mail-based intervention (PRIME C). Markers of adherence were completion of homework, self-monitoring of physical activity, attendance at class (PRIME G only), and completion of monthly telephone calls (PRIME C only). Changes over time in adherence markers and differences between intervention groups for homework completion and adherence to self-monitoring were modeled with generalized estimating equations (GEE).


The probability of attending class, completing the telephone calls, and completing the homework decreased significantly over 6 months. Participants only self-monitored an average of 5 to 6 days each calendar month. Participants in the group-based intervention were more likely than those in the telephone- and mail-delivered intervention to complete the homework throughout the study.


The findings suggest that individuals are willing to adhere with a telephone call protocol over 6 months. They are less willing to complete homework and attend class over this same time period. Most are not willing to self-monitor their lifestyle physical activities more than a few days a month.

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Brian P. Soebbing and Nicholas M. Watanabe

Price dispersion reflects ignorance in the marketplace in which different prices exist from the same or different sellers for a similar good. One of the sources of price dispersion is uncertain demand for a business’s good or service. Ticket markets are good opportunities to examine a firm’s pricing strategy under demand uncertainty, because professional sports teams have to price their tickets well in advance of the actual event and before actual demand is known. The purpose of the present research is to examine the relationship between price dispersion and regular season average attendance in Major League Baseball. Using a two-step generalized method of moments (GMM) model, the present research finds that an increase in price dispersion leads to a decrease in average attendance.