The purpose of this study was to examine whether the relationships between contextual factors (i.e., autonomy-supportive vs. controlling coaching style) and person factors (i.e., autonomous vs. controlled motivation) outlined in self-determination theory (SDT) were related to prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport. We also investigated moral disengagement as a mediator of these relationships. Athletes’ (n = 292, M = 19.53 years) responses largely supported our SDT-derived hypotheses. Results indicated that an autonomy-supportive coaching style was associated with prosocial behavior toward teammates; this relationship was mediated by autonomous motivation. Controlled motivation was associated with antisocial behavior toward teammates and antisocial behavior toward opponents, and these two relationships were mediated by moral disengagement. The results provide support for research investigating the effect of autonomy-supportive coaching interventions on athletes’ prosocial and antisocial behavior.
Maarten Vansteenkiste, Athanasios Mouratidis, Thomas van Riet and Willy Lens
In the current study we aimed to examine the antecedents and outcomes associated with the variability in competitive volleyball players’ (N = 67; M age = 19.45; SD = 5.13) situational achievement goal pursuit and its underlying autonomous and controlling reasons. Players were followed during six consecutive games and data were analyzed through multilevel modeling. Players’ dominant contextual goal pursuit reported at the onset of the study related to their situational (i.e., game-specific) goal pursuit. Further, variation in game-to-game mastery-approach goal pursuit, as compared with the pursuit of other achievement goals, related to variation in prosocial behavior. Finally, autonomous reasons underlying situational mastery-approach goal pursuit related positively to games-specific prosocial behavior, enjoyment, and performance satisfaction. The discussion emphasizes the necessity to study players’ game-to-game motivational dynamics and the reasons underlying players’ achievement goal pursuit.
Cindy Rutten, Filip Boen, Nathalie Vissers and Jan Seghers
Based on Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), this study tested whether changes in autonomous motivation toward physical education (AMPE) during the transition from elementary to secondary school can be predicted by changes in perceived need support from the physical education (PE) teacher and perceived physical school environment. Self-reported data were gathered from 472 Flemish (northern part of Belgium) students in 6th grade (2009) and again in 8th grade (2011). Mediation analyses showed that an increase in perceived need support from the PE teacher was related to an increase in AMPE (boys: β = .42; girls: β = .50). In boys, this relation was mediated by changes in perceived competence (β = .08). In girls, this relation was mediated by changes in perceived autonomy (β = .12), perceived competence (β = .14), and perceived relatedness (β = .05). This study shows that PE teachers should be need-supportive to maintain a good quality of motivation in students.
Yew Meng How, Peter Whipp, James Dimmock and Ben Jackson
This study examined whether the provision of choice in physical education (PE) enhanced students’ autonomous motivation, perceived autonomy support, and physical activity (PA) levels, relative to a “regular PE” control group. Students from eight intact high school PE classes (N = 257, Mage = 12.91) were randomly assigned to control (i.e., four classes) and intervention (i.e., four classes) conditions. Students in the intervention group were given a unique opportunity to choose their preferred participatory role in their PE units, while control students participated in normal teacher-led PE, and data were collected over a 15-week program (i.e., three units of five weeks each). The results indicated that a lack of choice in PE aligned with less positive perceptions of autonomy support among students within the control group, compared with their counterparts in the intervention group. In some choice formats, students exhibited significantly higher PA levels than students who undertook normal PE. These findings indicate that offering choice in high school PE lessons may encourage perceptions of autonomy support and levels of in-class physical activity.
Maarten Vansteenkiste, Athanasios Mouratidis and Willy Lens
In two cross-sectional studies we investigated whether soccer players’ well-being (Study 1) and moral functioning (Studies 1 and 2) is related to performance-approach goals and to the autonomous and controlling reasons underlying their pursuit. In support of our hypotheses, we found in Study 1 that autonomous reasons were positively associated with vitality and positive affect, whereas controlling reasons were positively related to negative affect and mostly unrelated to indicators of morality. To investigate the lack of systematic association with moral outcomes, we explored in Study 2 whether performance-approach goals or their underlying reasons would yield an indirect relation to moral outcomes through their association with players’ objectifying attitude—their tendency to depersonalize their opponents. Structural equation modeling showed that controlling reasons for performance-approach goals were positively associated with an objectifying attitude, which in turn was positively associated to unfair functioning. Results are discussed within the achievement goal perspective (Elliot, 2005) and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000).
Sami Yli-Piipari, Todd Layne, Janet Hinson and Carol Irwin
extrinsic motivation (HMIEM; Vallerand, 2007 ), and the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991 ). Proposition 1 is drawn from the SDT ( Deci & Ryan, 1985 , 2000 ) with the hypothesis that perceived support for autonomous motivation from social agents (e.g., teachers) toward school-based PA (e
Laura A. Dwyer, Minal Patel, Linda C. Nebeling and April Y. Oh
studies, theoretically driven psychosocial variables that have been associated with PA behaviors or intentions include (among others): self-efficacy and goals, 16 autonomous motivation, 17 barriers, 18 , 19 and attitudes. 20 , 21 Psychosocial by Environmental Interactions on PA Although neighborhood
Emily L. Mailey, Deirdre Dlugonski, Wei-Wen Hsu and Michelle Segar
is inherently interested in the “what” and “why” of people’s behavior. The “what” refers to people’s goals or motives for exercising (eg, goal contents, participation motives). In general, the “why” refers to people’s behavioral regulations, the extent to which individuals feel autonomous or
Barbara E. Bechter, James A. Dimmock, Joshua L. Howard, Peter R. Whipp and Ben Jackson
, is “self-determined” (i.e., volitional or self-endorsed) in nature. At the most self-determined (or autonomous) end of the continuum is intrinsic motivation, which reflects involvement in an activity for its own sake, and due to the pleasure and enjoyment that it provides. Adjacent to intrinsic
Valérian Cece, Noémie Lienhart, Virginie Nicaise, Emma Guillet-Descas and Guillaume Martinent
sport motivation ( Martinent & Decret, 2015 ). Hence, maintaining a high level of autonomous motivation is acknowledged by several scholars as an essential quality that competitive athletes need to develop in their career (e.g., Gillet, Berjot, Vallerand, Amoura, & Rosnet, 2012 ; Martinent & Decret