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Kiruthika Rathanaswami, Enrique Garcia Bengoechea and Paula Louise Bush

The aim of this study was to understand the physical activity (PA) experiences of South Asian women employees and their perceptions of new immigrant South Asian women in regards to barriers and facilitators to participation. This was examined using an interpretive description approach where similarities and differences between South Asian Women’s Centre employees and their perception of new South Asian immigrants were explored. Eight South Asian women employees (Mean age = 45.57 years) working at a South Asian Women’s Centre in Canada participated in this study. Five South Asian women employees participated in a focus group, three in an individual interview and one participant from the focus group took part in a follow-up interview to better understand their PA experiences. Barriers found included: family responsibilities, upbringing, feeling guilty, immediate living environment, clothing, cost, and location of activity. PA facilitators found included: help at home, cultural sports events, group support, female only programs, design of PA facilities, health and self-image benefits, providing PA for children at the same time as adults and collaborations. The main differences found between South Asian Women’s Centre employees and their clients concerned time, language and their partners. For this population of women, programs need to be affordable, close to home, female only and allow their own choice of clothing. The results suggest the importance for those working with South Asian women to take into consideration the many factors between the individual and the environment that may inhibit or facilitate PA behavior change in this population.

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Christopher P. Connolly, Deborah L. Feltz and James M. Pivarnik

Pregnant and postpartum women have reported a number of barriers that prevent them from being sufficiently physically active. Overcoming these barriers is critical to ensure the health benefits of physical activity to both mother and fetus. The primary focus of this review centers on the potential impact social support may have in overcoming each of the primary barriers to physical activity experienced during pregnancy and the postpartum period. A reasonable body of research exists regarding the relationships between social support and these barriers; however, few investigations have specifically attempted to mitigate the effects of these barriers via social support interventions. Within this review, the enabling influence of social support as it pertains to pregnant and postpartum women's physical activity is discussed. Recommendations are suggested for the application of social support in future research investigations involving physical activity during pregnancy and postpartum.

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Jon Welty Peachey and Adam Cohen

Research partnerships between scholars and sport for development and peace (SDP) organizations are common, but firsthand accounts of the challenges and barriers faced by scholars when forming and sustaining partnerships are rare. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine them, and to uncover strategies to overcome these challenges across different partnership contexts. Eight prominent SDP scholars were interviewed. Guided by collaboration theory and the partnership literature, findings revealed challenges included navigating the political and organizational landscape; securing commitments from organizations with limited resources; negotiating divergent goals, objectives, and understandings; and conducting long-term evaluations and research. Strategies to address these issues involved developing strategic partnerships, cultivating mutual understanding, building trust, starting small, finding the cause champion, and developing a track record of success. Key theoretical and practical implications are drawn forth, as well as intriguing future research directions.

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Orlagh Farmer, Donna Duffy, Kevin Cahill, Diarmuid Lester, Sarahjane Belton and Wesley O’Brien

, motivations, barriers, and psychological correlates (for example, self-efficacy and attitudes) through in-depth qualitative research allows for greater understanding of the rationale behind their PA-related choices ( Whitehead & Biddle, 2008 ). Underlying motivators and barriers to whether or not an

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Sarah J. Hatteberg

these characteristics is the absence of barriers between individuals’ domains of “sleep, play and work” ( Goffman, 1961 , p. 5), a feature which sets total institutions apart from other social settings. On this basis, Goffman identifies the following four attributes of total institutions: First, all

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George B. Cunningham, Na Young Ahn, Arden J. Anderson and Marlene A. Dixon

barriers and support for women in coaching, also recognized the importance of opportunities and advancement aspirations. They noted that various barriers could serve to limit the perceived opportunities and, ultimately, advancement aspirations of women in coaching, thereby serving to limit women in the

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Matea Wasend and Nicole M. LaVoi

( Burton & LaVoi, 2016 ; LaVoi, 2016a ; LaVoi & Dutove, 2012 ) used ecological systems theory to summarize and highlight the many barriers and challenges women coaches face at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, and sociocultural levels within the occupational landscape of sport coaching. For

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Justine B. Allen and Colleen Reid

support ( Allen & Shaw, 2013 ). Unfortunately, this research paints a rather bleak picture of the plight of women coaches. LaVoi and Dutove’s ( 2012 ) literature review of barriers and supports for women coaches provided a useful examination of both sides and different levels of the picture using

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Marlene Adams and Susan McCrone

The primary objective of this study was to explore selected variables from the Health Promotion Model to determine their impact on the exercise behavior of women ages 40 and older. The secondary objective was to compare variables in women who exercise and those who do not. A convenience sample of 893 female employees from one large university in the mid-Atlantic region and its surrounding community participated. Participants completed a brief demographic questionnaire and the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale (EBBS). Walking was the preferred form of exercise for 50.1 % of women. Those who preferred walking perceived fewer benefits and barriers to exercising. Significant predictors of engagement in the preferred form of exercise were perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and walking as a

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Mary Yoke

Objective:

Physical inactivity, overweight, and obesity are endemic in the United States and in the developed world, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. More information is needed regarding the physical activity beliefs, attitudes, barriers, and perceived self-control among those who are sedentary and weight-challenged. The purpose of this study was to elicit physical activity beliefs about feasibility, pleasure, and movement descriptions from sedentary, middle-aged, overweight women.

Methods:

Open-ended questions were used throughout individual interviews with 23 participants (age: M = 52.0, SD = 7.3; BMI: M = 34.2, SD = 9.79); attitudes and beliefs regarding physical activity and movement descriptions were documented. Participants were divided into those who were completely sedentary (12 women) and those who regularly engaged in physical activity (11 women).

Results:

A content analysis revealed that sedentary women were less active and had more perceived barriers to physical activity than active women. The most frequently cited perceived barriers were injuries, caregiving responsibilities, time, age, dislike of sweating, and depression. Sedentary women were less likely to report physical activity as pleasurable; they were also more likely to cite having an exercise buddy as an optimal activity situation. The most frequently cited pleasurable activities in both groups were yoga, movement to music, stretching, and walking.

Conclusions:

This study provided evidence that perceived barriers to physical activity must be addressed, that low-intensity programs are needed and desired by overweight and sedentary women, and that movement activities must be found that are enjoyable for the target population.