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André Luiz Felix Rodacki, Neil Edward Fowler and Simon Bennett

The aim of this study was to compare the kinematic pattern and the segmental movement co-ordination when the trunk segment was constrained in different positions during plyometric rebound jumps. Nine skilled volleyball players, experienced in plyometric training, were asked to perform a random series of maximal rebound jumps, using three different seat arrangements (90°, 135°, and 180°) in a pendulum swing device. From two-dimensional filming, performed in a right sagittal plane at 200 Hz, it was possible to calculate ankle, knee, and hip displacements; velocities; and muscle-tendon lengths. The subjects showed similar ankle and knee angles between experimental conditions. The hip joint angle differed significantly between conditions. Only the muscle-tendon lengths of the biarticular muscles spanning the knee/hip were affected by the seat arrangement variations. Significantly greater knee angular velocities were observed in the upright sitting posture (90°). The hip was consistently the first joint to extend. The ankle and knee joint reversals were not invariant, regardless of the seat arrangement. The movement co-ordination strategy did not differ across postural variations.

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Josu Gomez-Ezeiza, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Jon Torres-Unda, Brian Hanley and Nicholas Tam

forces appear to be associated with preactivation 19 during terminal swing 16 and consequent joint biomechanics that enable efficient gait. 18 Thus, during initial ground contact, the biarticular muscle, biceps femoris appears to behave as a joint stabilizer for both the knee and hip, as similar

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Lucinda E. Bouillon, Michael Hofener, Andrew O’Donnel, Amanda Milligan and Craig Obrock

biarticular muscle acting on both the hip and knee during the lunge. Robertson et al observed that the RF is a hip flexor as well as a hip and knee stabilizer during the descent phase of a squat on a firm surface. The muscle eccentrically contracts to prevent excessive hip extension while simultaneously

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Jill L. McNitt-Gray

doi:10.1016/S0021-9290(01)00110-5 11672722 10.1016/S0021-9290(01)00110-5 12. Hof AL . The force resulting from the action of mono-and biarticular muscles in a limb . J Biomech . 2001 ; 34 ( 8 ): 1085 – 1089 . doi:10.1016/S0021-9290(01)00056-2 10.1016/S0021-9290(01)00056-2 13. Jackson DK

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Kevin McCurdy and John Walker

activation levels at every region. The MSLS also produced higher activation levels in each region compared with SLDL and BS, whereas the SLDL was higher than the BS at all sites. The primary role of the HM is to control knee flexion and extension, and a secondary role of the biarticular muscles is to control

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William H. Clark and Jason R. Franz

those muscle–tendon units are sufficiently lengthened. 22 Furthermore, the medial gastrocnemius, unlike the soleus, is a biarticular muscle that is necessarily affected by knee rotation. 39 Compared with values measured during passive ankle rotation, k M and k A both increased significantly and in

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Feng-Hua Tsai, I-Hua Chu, Chun-Hao Huang, Jing-Min Liang, Jia-Hroung Wu and Wen-Lan Wu

than under other taping conditions in the pushing phase and also has the lowest value in the pushing phase. However, no significant differences were observed in the gastrocnemius muscle. A possible reason for this is that the gastrocnemius is a biarticular muscle. The restrictions in tendon mobility as

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Guillaume P. Ducrocq, Thomas J. Hureau, Olivier Meste and Grégory M. Blain

. Mechanical output from individual muscles during explosive leg extensions: the role of biarticular muscles . J Biomech . 1996 ; 29 : 513 – 523 . PubMed ID: 8964781 doi:10.1016/0021-9290(95)00067-4 8964781 10.1016/0021-9290(95)00067-4 49. Brøchner Nielsen NP , Hug F , Guével A , Colloud F

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Mark L. Latash

taken metaphorically (they imply some kind of weighted summation) because of a number of factors such as different anatomical muscle lengths, different cross-sectional area of muscles, presence of both uniarticular and biarticular muscles, and potentially other. The role of all these factors in the { r