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M. Travis Byrd, Jonathan Robert Switalla, Joel E. Eastman, Brian J. Wallace, Jody L. Clasey and Haley C. Bergstrom

, 13 Thus, CP and AWC represent distinct parameters related to metabolic characteristics of the whole body and active muscle tissue, respectively. There is limited evidence on the contribution of specific body-composition characteristics (thigh cross-sectional area, whole-body fat percentage [%BF

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Oliver C. Witard, Ina Garthe and Stuart M. Phillips

Dietary protein is widely regarded as a key nutrient for allowing optimal training adaptation ( Tipton, 2008 ) and optimizing body composition ( Hector & Phillips, 2018 ; Murphy et al., 2015 ) in athletes including track and field athletes. Track and field athletics encompasses a broad spectrum of

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Timothy G. Lohman

The assessment of body composition in children has taken on greater significance because of the need to study the prevalence of obesity in children and youth, the need to better document the tracking and genetics of body fatness, the need to relate fat patterning in childhood and fat patterning in adults, and the need to assess changes in the prevalence in obesity over time in a given population. This paper reviews methods of estimating body composition in children and youth. The use of body mass index, anthropometry, body density, and bioelectric impedance methodologies is emphasized, as well as the need to use multicomponent models for validation studies of new methods. Also explored in this article is the relationship between body composition and health related fitness.

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Jessica M. Stephens, Shona L. Halson, Joanna Miller, Gary J. Slater, Dale W. Chapman and Christopher D. Askew

capacity may be reduced if the CWI protocol is too severe for individuals with low body fat and high BSA:M, as it may result in overcooling. CWI is often applied unilaterally, with the same immersion protocol implemented for all athletes regardless of individual differences in body composition. A greater

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Adam J. Zemski, Shelley E. Keating, Elizabeth M. Broad and Gary J. Slater

), distinct differences in body composition exist. Forwards have consistently been shown to be heavier, taller, and possess more fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM), whereas backs display proportionally lower body fat ( Lees et al., 2017 ; Zemski et al., 2015 ). Optimal body composition assists athletes in

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Linda B. Houtkooper, Veronica A. Mullins, Scott B. Going, C. Harmon Brown and Timothy G. Lohman

This study characterized body composition profiles of elite American heptathletes and cross-validated skinfold (SKF) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) field method equations for estimation of percent body fat (%Fat) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the criterion. Weight, height, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), bone mineral density (BMD), and %Fat were measured in 19 heptathletes using standard measurement protocols for DXA, SKFs and BIA. The ages, heights, and weights were respectively 25.5 ± 3.5 years, 175.0 ± 6.6 cm, 67.3 ± 7.1 kg. DXA estimates of mean ± SD values for body composition variables were 57.2 ± 6.1 kg FFM, 10.1 ± 2.6 kg FM, 114 ± 7% BMD for age/racial reference group, and 15 ± 3.0 %Fat. Ranges of bias values for %Fat (DXA minus SKF or BIA) were, respectively, −0.5 to 1.6% and −5.5 to −1.2%. Ranges for standard errors of estimate and total errors were, respectively, SKF 2.4–2.5%, 2.4–2.8% and BIA 3.0%, 5.0–6.5%. Regression analyses of the field methods on DXA were significant (p < .05) for all SKF equations but not BIA equations. This study demonstrates that elite American heptathletes are lean, have high levels of BMD, and that SKF equations provide more accurate estimates of %Fat relative to DXA than estimates from BIA equations.

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Adam J. Zemski, Elizabeth M. Broad and Gary J. Slater

of the sport, including athletes evolving body composition traits. Routine physique assessment is advocated in rugby union due to the role gravitational force plays and its relationship with on-field success ( Olds, 2001 ; Sedeaud et al., 2012 ). The most common methods used in practice to assess

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Flinn Shiel, Carl Persson, Vini Simas, James Furness, Mike Climstein, Rod Pope and Ben Schram

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) uses a machine originally developed to provide information about bone mineral density, with the additional capability to assess and analyze body composition (BC) while imparting only low levels of radiation (less than a thousandth of the maximum recommended

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Michael J. Ormsbee, Brandon D. Willingham, Tasha Marchant, Teresa L. Binkley, Bonny L. Specker and Matthew D. Vukovich

training program will produce a greater adaptive response to the training stimulus, resulting in greater gains in muscle mass and strength and aerobic capacity. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to investigate changes in strength, body composition, and peak oxygen consumption (VO 2 peak) during a 6-month

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Fernando Naclerio, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Mar Larrosa, Aitor Centeno, Jonathan Esteve-Lanao and Diego Moreno-Pérez

attenuate muscle disruption and optimize changes in body composition, but this practice may not have a meaningful effect on performance compared with the ingestion of carbohydrate alone ( McLellan et al., 2014 ). Both whey and beef are high-quality protein sources with a very similar amino acid composition