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Ann Swartz, Scott Strath, Sarah Parker, Nora Miller and Linda Cieslik

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which physical activity (PA) is related to obesity in older adults when accounting for race/ethnicity.

Methods:

Cross-sectional data were collected on 214 older adults (72.3 ± 8.9 y; body mass index [BMI] 28.9 ± 6.0; 151 females; 96 non-White). Measures of body height and mass were collected; BMI was calculated. PA was assessed via an electronic pedometer worn for seven consecutive days.

Results:

“White” subjects accumulated 5036 ± 286 steps/d. “Non-White” subjects accumulated significantly fewer steps/d (3671 ± 253 steps/d; z = −3.45, P = 0.001). Race/ethnicity, income, age, gender, and steps/d accounted for 27.4% (P < 0.001) of the variance in BMI, with steps/d accounting for 21.2% (P < 0.001). The most influential factor in this model was PA level (β = −0.510), followed by age (β = −0.220), and finally gender being the least influential, but still a significant factor (β = 0.168).

Conclusion:

Although race/ethnicity and income have been associated with obesity levels, this study shows that older adults who accumulate more ambulatory activity tend to have healthier levels of BMI irrespective of race/ethnicity or income.

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Judith Jiménez, Maria Morera, Walter Salazar and Carl Gabbard

Purpose:

Motor skill competence has been associated with physical activity level, fitness, and other relevant health-related characteristics. Recent research has focused on understanding these relationships in children and adolescents, but little is known about subsequent years. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between fundamental motor skill (FMS) ability and body mass index (BMI) in young adults.

Method:

Participants, 40 men and 40 women (M age = 19.25 yr, SD = 2.48), were assessed for BMI and motor competence with 10 fundamental motor skills (FMSs) using the Test for Fundamental Motor Skills in Adults (TFMSA).

Results:

BMI was negatively associated with total motor ability (r = –.257; p = .02) and object control skills (r = –.251; p = .02); the relationship with locomotor skills was marginally insignificant (r = –.204; p = .07). In regard to individual skills, a significant negative association was found for running, jumping, striking, and kicking (ps < .05). Multiple regression analysis indicated that BMI and gender predicted 42% of the variance in total FMS score; gender was the only significant predictor.

Conclusion:

Overall, these preliminary findings suggest that young adults with higher FMS ability are more likely to have lower BMI scores.

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Tyler F. Vadeboncoeur, Scott M. Silvers, Walter C. Taylor, Shane A. Shapiro, Jennifer A. Roth, Nancy Diehl, Sherry M. Mahoney and Michael M. Mohseni

Background:

To evaluate whether a high body mass index (BMI) predisposes marathon/half-marathon participants to lower extremity injuries.

Methods:

Consenting adult participants at the 2008 National Marathon to Fight Breast Cancer were enrolled in this observational study. The primary outcome measure was prevalence of self-reported lower extremity injury, during both training and race participation, with respect to BMI.

Results:

There were 194 subjects with complete data: 139 females (72%) and 55 males. Forty-six percent of females and 51% of males ran the full marathon (P = .63). Median BMI was 23.7 kg/m2 for females and 26.2 kg/m2 for males (P = .001). Eleven (24%) females in BMI tertile 1 (T1) suffered a training injury, while 9 (18%) from T2 and 4 (9%) from T3 suffered injuries (P = .072; OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.01). Twenty-six (19%) females suffered an injury during the race. Females in T1 were more likely to suffer a race-related injury (P = .038; OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.99). Females were 13% less likely to suffer a race-related injury with each 1-unit increase in BMI. Rates of injury did not differ by BMI tertile in males.

Conclusions:

A high BMI did not impart an increased risk of lower extremity injury during training or race participation.

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Yuri Feito, David R. Bassett, Dixie L. Thompson and Brian M. Tyo

Background:

Activity monitors are widely used in research, and are currently being used to study physical activity (PA) trends in the US and Canada. The purpose of this study was to determine if body mass index (BMI) affects the step count accuracy of commonly used accelerometer-based activity monitors during treadmill walking.

Methods:

Participants were classified into BMI categories and instructed to walk on a treadmill at 3 different speeds (40, 67, and 94 m·min−1) while wearing 4 accelerometer-based activity monitors (ActiGraph GT1M, ActiCal, NL-2000, and StepWatch).

Results:

There was no significant main effect of BMI on pedometer accuracy. At the slowest speed, all waist-mounted devices significantly underestimated actual steps (P < .001), with the NL-2000 recording the greatest percentage (72%). At the intermediate speed, the ActiGraph was the least accurate, recording only 80% of actual steps. At the fastest speed, all of the activity monitors demonstrated a high level of accuracy.

Conclusion:

Our data suggest that BMI does not greatly affect the step-counting accuracy of accelerometer-based activity monitors. However, the accuracy of the ActiGraph, ActiCal, and NL-2000 decreases at slower speeds. The ankle-mounted StepWatch was the most accurate device across a wide range of walking speeds.

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Luisa Aires, Pedro Silva, Gustavo Silva, Maria Paula Santos, José Carlos Ribeiro and Jorge Mota

Background:

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between body mass index (BMI), Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF), and levels of physical activity (PA) from sedentary to very vigorous intensities, measured by accelerometry, in students from a middle and high school.

Methods:

This cross-sectional study included 111 children and adolescents, age 11 to 18 years. PA was assessed with an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days (1 minute epoch) using specific cut-points. PA components were derived using special written software (MAHUffe). CRF was assessed by maximal multistage 20m shuttle run. T-test was used to test differences between BMI groups, Pearson’s correlation, to analyze correlations between all variables and multinomial logistic regression, and to predict the value of BMI categories.

Results:

This paper provides evidence that BMI was inversely and significantly correlated with CRF. Only CRF was correlated with Vigorous and Very Vigorous PA levels and total amount of PA. Children with Overweight/Obesity were less likely to perform more laps than normal weight counterparts. The total amount or intensity level of PA did not show any influence on BMI level.

Conclusions:

Low CRF is strongly associated with obesity, which highlights the importance of increasing CRF for a protective effect even in youth. No associations were found for PA and BMI.

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Alina Cohen, Joseph Baker and Chris I. Ardern

Background:

Obesity is associated with impairments in health-related quality of life (HRQL), whereas physical activity (PA) is a promoter of HRQL.

Purpose:

The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between BMI and PA with HRQL in younger and older Canadian adults.

Methods:

Data from the 2012 annual component of the Canadian Community Health Survey (N = 48,041; = 30 years) were used to capture self-reported body mass index (BMI-kg/m2), PA (kcal/kg/day, KKD), and HRQL. Interactions between PA and age on the BMI and HRQL relationship were assessed using general linear models and logistic regression.

Results:

Those younger (younger: μ = 0.79 ± 0.02; older: μ = 0.70 ± 0.02) and more active (active: μ = 0.82 ± 0.02; moderately active: μ = 0.77 ± 0.03; inactive: μ = 0.73 ± 0.01) reported higher HRQL. Older inactive underweight, normal weight, and overweight adults have lower odds of high HRQL.

Conclusion:

PA was associated with higher HRQL in younger adults. In older adults, BMI and PA influenced HRQL.

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Takemi Sugiyama, Dafna Merom, Marina Reeves, Eva Leslie and Neville Owen

Background:

Television viewing time is associated with obesity risk independent of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). However, it is unknown whether the relationship of TV viewing time with body mass index (BMI) is moderated by other domains of physical activity.

Methods:

A mail survey collected height; weight; TV viewing time; physical activity for transportation (habitual transport behavior; past week walking and bicycling), for recreation (LTPA), and in workplace; and sociodemographic variables in Adelaide, Australia. General linear models examined whether physical activity domains moderate the association between BMI and TV viewing time.

Results:

Analysis of the sample (N = 1408) found that TV time, habitual transport, and LTPA were independently associated with participant’s BMI. The interaction between TV time and habitual transport with BMI was significant, while that between TV time and LTPA was not. Subgroup analyses found that adjusted mean BMI was significantly higher for the high TV viewing category, compared with the low category, among participants who were inactive and occasionally active in transport, but not among those who were regularly active.

Conclusions:

Habitual active transport appeared to moderate the relationship between TV viewing time and BMI. Obesity risk associated with prolonged TV viewing may be mitigated by regular active transport.

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Ellen Yard and Dawn Comstock

Background:

There are over 7 million US high school athletes and one-third are overweight or obese. Our objective was to examine injury patterns by body mass index (BMI) in high school athletes.

Methods:

Certified athletic trainers (ATCs) at 100 nationally representative US high schools submitted exposure and injury information during the 2005 to 08 school years via High School RIO (Reporting Information Online). We retrospectively categorized injured athletes as underweight (≤15th percentile), normal weight (15th−85th percentile), overweight (85th−95th percentile), or obese (≥95th percentile).

Results:

ATCs reported 13,881 injuries during 5,627,921 athlete-exposures (2.47 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures). Nearly two-thirds (61.4%) of injured high school athletes were normal weight. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was highest among injured football athletes (54.4%). Compared with normal weight athletes, obese athletes sustained a larger proportion of knee injuries (Injury Proportion Ratio [IPR] = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.42) and their injuries were more likely to have resulted from contact with another person (IPR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.37). Compared with normal weight athletes, underweight athletes sustained a larger proportion of fractures (IPR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.92) and a larger proportion of injuries resulting from illegal activity (IPR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.03 to 2.46).

Conclusions:

Injury patterns differ by BMI. BMI-targeted preventive interventions should be developed to help decrease sports injury rates.

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Pedro Curi Hallal, Felipe Fossati Reichert, Fernando Vinholes Siqueira, Samuel Carvalho Dumith, Juliano Peixoto Bastos, Marcelo Cozzensa da Silva, Marlos Rodrigues Domingues, Mario Renato Azevedo and Ulf Ekelund

Objectives:

The objective of this study was to evaluate physical activity (PA) levels in adults and their association with sex, age, and education level across categories of body mass index (BMI).

Methods:

We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study including 3100 individuals age ≥20 years living in Pelotas, Brazil. PA was assessed using the leisure-time section of the long International Physical Activity Questionnaire. “No PA” was defined as zero minutes of activity/week; “insuffcient PA” was defined as <150 minutes of activity/week; “high PA” was defined as ≥500 minutes of activity/week. BMI was categorized into normal (<25 kg/m2), overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2), and obesity (≥30 kg/m2).

Results:

The prevalence of insufficient PA was 71.6% among normal BMI subjects, 71.3% among overweight individuals, and 73.7% among obese ones (P = .67). No PA and high PA were also not associated with BMI. The associations between sex, age, and education level and PA levels tended to be stronger among normal-weight individuals compared with overweight and obese individuals. Among the obese, most associations were not significant. Among normal-weight individuals, higher PA levels were observed in men, young adults, and those with higher education.

Conclusions:

Variables associated with leisure-time PA differed between normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals. Studies on PA correlates might benefit from stratifying by BMI.

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Carolyn C. Voorhees, Dianne J. Catellier, J. Scott Ashwood, Deborah A. Cohen, Ariane Rung, Leslie Lytle, Terry L. Conway and Marsha Dowda

Background:

Socioeconomic status (SES) has well known associations with a variety of health conditions and behaviors in adults but is unknown in adolescents.

Methods:

Multilevel analysis was conducted to examine the associations between individual and neighborhood-level measures of SES and physical activity and body mass index in a sample of 1554 6th grade girls selected at random from 36 middle schools across 6 geographic regions in the United States that participated in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Data on parental education and employment, and receipt of subsidized school lunch were collected by questionnaire. Neighborhood-level SES was measured by the Townsend Index. Nonschool physical activity levels were measured by accelerometer and type, location and context was measured using a 3 day physical activity recall (3DPAR).

Results:

After controlling for race, lower parental education and higher levels of social deprivation were associated with higher BMI. In a model with both variables, effects were attenuated and only race remained statistically significant. None of the indices of SES were related to accelerometer measured physical activity. Bivariate associations with self-reported Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) location and type (3DPAR) varied by SES.

Conclusion:

Among adolescent girls in the TAAG Study, the prevalence of overweight is high and inversely related to individual and neighborhood SES.