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Alba Gómez-Cabello, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez, Isabel Navarro-Vera, Diana Martinez-Redondo, Carmen Díez-Sánchez and José Antonio Casajús

The aim of this study was to provide information about the relationship of bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) with some physical-fitness-related variables in a sample of women with fibromyalgia (FM) and age-matched women without FM. Twenty-eight women clinically diagnosed with FM (age 51.1 ± 8.4 yr, M ± SD) and 22 age-matched controls participated in the study. Whole-body BMC and BMD, lean mass, handgrip strength, quadriceps strength, and cardiovascular fitness were measured in all participants. The association between physical-fitness variables and bone-related variables was tested by linear regression controlling for body weight as a possible confounder. There were no differences in BMC or BMD between groups. Women with FM had lower values of handgrip strength, quadriceps strength, and VO2peak than the control group. Handgrip strength and aerobic capacity were associated with BMC and BMD and quadriceps strength was associated with BMD in women with FM; however, only VO2peak was associated with BMC in the group of women without FM. Bone mass of women with FM may be more susceptible to changes in physical fitness than that of the women without fibromyalgia.

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Jeanne F. Nichols, Karen P. Nelson, Katrina K. Peterson and David J. Sartoris

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of high-intensity strength training on bone mineral density (BMD) of 34 non-estrogen-repleted, active women over 60 years of age. The study was designed as a randomized, nonblinded trial in which subjects were stratified into rank-ordered pairs by level of physical activity, then randomly assigned into either a weight training (WT) or a control (CON) group. BMD of the spine (L2–L4), hip, and total body was assessed at 0, 6, and 12 months by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Group-by-time repeated-measures ANOVA demonstrated no effect of weight training on BMD, despite marked gains in muscular strength for all exercises. The high-intensity weight training utilized in this study did not induce positive changes in BMD of the hip and spine of previously active, non-estrogen-repleted older women. However, the protocol was safe, enjoyable, and highly effective in increasing muscular strength.

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Dan Benardot

Athletes are influenced by coaches, other athletes, media, parents, the national sport governing body, members of the sports medicine team, and the athlete's own desire for success. It is impossible, therefore, for one member of the sports medicine team to unilaterally determine workable solutions that enhance performance and diminish health problems in an athlete. A focus on ensuring that the athlete can perform to the best of her ability is a key to encouraging discussion between the nutritionist, athlete, and coach. Using the assumption that health and top athletic performance are compatible, this focus on performance provides a discussion point that all parties can agree to and, if approached properly, also fulfills the nutritionist's goal of achieving optimal nutritional status. Membership on the sports medicine team mandates that the nutritionist know the paradigms and health risks associated with the sport and develop assessment and feedback procedures specific to the athlete's needs.

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Helen M. Binkley and Lauren E. Rudd

following outcome categories were determined: anthropometric, strength, flexibility, functional, cardiorespiratory, biochemical variables, hormonal variables, bone density, and quality of life. All these outcome categories were summarized according to improvement or decline (Table  4 ). Table 4 Outcomes

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Margaret Schneider, Genevieve F. Dunton, Stan Bassin, Dan J. Graham, Alon Eliakim and Dan M. Cooper

Background:

Many female adolescents participate in insufficient physical activity to maintain cardiovascular fitness and promote optimal bone growth. This study evaluates the impact of a school-based intervention on fitness, activity, and bone among adolescent females.

Methods:

Subjects were assigned to an intervention (n = 63) or comparison (n = 59) group, and underwent assessments of cardiovascular fitness (VO2peak), physical activity, body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and serum markers of bone turnover at baseline and at the end of each of two school semesters.

Results:

The intervention increased physical activity, VO2peak, and BMC for the thoracic spine (P values < 0.05). Bone turnover markers were not affected. In longitudinal analyses of the combined groups, improvements in cardiovascular fitness predicted increased bone formation (P < 0.01) and bone resorption (P < 0.05).

Conclusion:

A school-based intervention for adolescent females effectively increased physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, and thoracic spine BMC.

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Bernadette L. Foster, Jeff W. Walkley and Viviene A. Temple

The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the bone mineral density of women with intellectual disability (WID) and a comparison group (WOID) matched for age and sex. One hundred and five women, ages 21 to 39, M = 29, were tested for their bone mineral density levels at the lumbar spine and three sites of the proximal femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. No significant difference between groups existed (λ = 0.94, F(4, 98) = 1.68, p = .16, η2 = .06); however, one-sample t tests revealed that bone mineral density for the WID group (n = 35) was significantly lower than zero at the Ward’s triangle (p < .01) and the lumbar spine (p < .05). Approximately one-quarter of WID had low bone density at these two sites, suggesting that WID may be at risk of osteoporotic fracture as they age.

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Eric Joseph Rosario, Rudolph Gino Villani, Jeff Harris and Rudi Klein

Aging generally results in muscle and bone atrophy, with accelerated loss in the first few years after menopause contributing to decline in strength, balance, and mobility. This investigation compared the effects of 1 of year periodized high-intensity strength training on a group of less-than-5-years (LF) postmenopausal women (n = 10, mean age 51 years) with its effects on a more-than-10-years (MT) postmenopausal group (n = 11, mean age 60 years). Mean lean body mass, strength, and balance increased over the intervention period for both groups, with no significant intergroup differences. Mean total fat mass significantly decreased for both groups, with no significant difference between groups. Total and regional bone density and mineral content did not significantly change in either group. These results indicate that even during the accelerated muscle-loss period after menopause, women can gain muscle and strength with resistance training to a similar extent as older women.

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Sandra O'Brien Cousins

This study analyzed older women's (age 57–92, N = 32) descriptions of motivating triggers for physical activity. Among active women, activity was triggered by situations such as declining fitness levels, low bone density, more free time, fears about inadequate health care leading to self-care, expectations for reduced aches and pains, awareness of new community programs, and public reports of the health benefits. Semiactive women had doubts about the appropriateness of being active. Inactive people also experienced triggers but seemed firmly committed to a less active lifestyle by reminding themselves that retirement requires no commitments, exercise is not needed if you are healthy, exercise is not appropriate if you are ill, being very busy is a substitute activity, and serving others is less selfish. The findings suggest that active-living interventions might be more effectively aimed at semi active seniors who seem positively disposed to participating but need help to get started or to stay involved.

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Susan K. Grimston, Jack R. Engsberg, Reinhard Kloiber and David A. Hanley

Increased incidence of stress fracture has been reported for amenorrheic runners, while some studies have reported decreased spinal bone mass in amenorrheic runners. Based on results from these studies, one tends to associate decreased spinal bone mass with an increased risk of stress fracture. The present study compared regional bone mass and external loads during running between six female runners reporting a history of stress fracture (seven tibial and three femoral neck) and eight female runners with no history of stress fracture. Dual photon absorptiometry measures indicated significantly greater spinal (L2-L4) and femoral neck bone mineral density in stress fracture subjects (p<0.05) but no differences between groups for tibial bone density. Normalized forces recorded from Kistler force plates indicated significantly greater vertical propulsive, maximal medial, lateral, and posterior forces for stress fracture subjects during running (p<0.05).

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Peter N. Wiebe, Cameron J.R. Blimkie, Nathalie Farpour-Lambert, Julie Briody, Helen Woodhead, Chris Cowell and Robert Howman-Giles

The correlates and determinants of total body (TB), femoral neck (FN), greater trochanter (GT) and leg areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and FN volumetric (vol) BMD were investigated in 42 healthy 6–10-year-old girls. Predictor variables included age, height, weight, lean tissue mass (LTM), fat mass, percent body fat, physical activity level, calcium intake, isokinetic knee flexion and extension strength and endocrine (E2) status. Bone density and body composition were determined by dual energy-x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and pubertal status was self-determined. LTM, weight, age, knee extensor strength and fat mass were significantly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficients; 0.36 £ r ‡ 0.62) with TBaBMD. These same variables with the addition of height and knee flexor strength were significantly correlated (0.33 £ r ‡ 0.77) with leg aBMD. Only LTM correlated significantly with FNaBMD and none of the independent variables correlated with FNvolBMD or GTaBMD. Only LTM entered as a significant predictor in multiple linear regression analysis (R 2 = 46.7%) for TBaBMD. In conclusion, estradiol status, dietary calcium intake and physical activity level appeared not to be important predictors of BMD in this population, whereas LTM was consistently correlated with most BMD measures and was the single significant determinant of TBaBMD in this study.